This report is based on information Amnesty International received in response to an online survey, distributed between May and September 2021, among partner organizations working with people affected by unjust criminalization. A total of 54 responses were received from civil society organizations working on issues including sex workers' rights, LGBTI rights, drug policy reform, homelessness, racial justice, Indigenous people's rights, discrimination based on work and descent, and sexual and reproductive rights. When further information was required, Amnesty International conducted interviews with representatives of organizations.
The report incorporates country-specific primary research on the impact of Covid-19 measures previously published by Amnesty International. In addition, an extensive literature review of media reports, academic articles, reports and statements by civil society organizations and international mechanisms was carried out, as well as interviews with several international organizations, public health experts and civil society representatives.