• Description

The ability of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) people to express who they are and to live as they are -- without fear -- is a fundamental human right. Unfortunately, history has taught us that societies have been especially slow to protect LGBT human rights, that it takes time to engender human rights protecting regimes and human rights respecting societies.

Although we can document advances in LGBT human rights over a ten year period from 2011-2020, the unfortunate reality is that in the second decade of the twenty-first century the majority of countries worldwide continue to persecute LGBT people. Utilizing F&M Global Barometers data from the GBGR and the GBTR from 2011-2020, this analysis measures the extent to which the existence of LGBT NGOs and their advocacy has a positive impact on the realization of LGBT protections globally and more specifically in the four sub regions: Caribbean, Central America, East Africa and Southern Africa. This study includes both sexual orientation and gender identity in the analysis.

We conducted a time-series panel data analysis to test the effect of LGBT NGO advocacy and structural indicators like state stability, GDP per capita, and globalization on LGBT rights. In doing so, we divided the analysis into two parts: a brief global analysis of LGBT rights between 2011 and 2020 and a more in-depth analysis of regions in which the Arcus Foundation is active.