• Description

Pew Research Center conducted this study to better understand the role women and men play as economic providers in opposite-sex marriages and how this relates to the way spouses divide their time between paid work, leisure, caregiving and housework. We also looked at public attitudes about gender roles in marriages today to put the findings in a broader context.

The analysis in this report is based on three separate data sources. The earnings data comes from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. The findings on hours devoted to paid work, household responsibilities and leisure are based on data from the American Time Use Survey. The data on public attitudes was collected as part of a larger Center survey of 5,152 U.S. adults conducted Jan. 18-24, 2023. Everyone who took part in the latter is a member of Pew Research Center's American Trends Panel (ATP), an online survey panel that is recruited through national, random sampling of residential addresses. This way nearly all U.S. adults have a chance of selection. The survey is weighted to be representative of the U.S. adult population by gender, race, ethnicity, partisan affiliation, education and other categories.