More than two decades of research and experience have provided new insights into the role of male condoms for contraception and HIV prevention. However, given that the number of people infected and living with HIV continues to grow, it is essential to reassess what we have learned about HIV prevention. This is especially true regarding condoms, the controversial mainstay of HIV prevention programs. Opinions on condoms are often based on ideology rather than evidence, though evidence has accumulated steadily. The following is a list of frequently asked questions and answers about condom efficacy.