This study focuses on labor outcomes of women and youth?the former have moved into low-quality employment, while the latter have high rates of underemployment. Labor market outcomes are examined through geographic analysis and a study of factors affecting employment at the individual level. The analysis is based on cross-sectional data collected by the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR). The study uses the two most recent waves of the nationally representative household surveys for 2005/06 and 2010/11. The other source was the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey. The methods used to meet the study objectives were a literature review of previous work on the Rwandan labor market, participation profiling via a descriptive analysis, and econometric analysis of determinants of employment outcomes.