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Financing Water and Sanitation for the Poor

November 1, 2015

This paper looks at the role of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in addressing the water and sanitation gap. Through a combination of a portfolio analysis; programmatic, independent evaluations; and WSP analyses, it shows that water and sanitation loans have strong social and economic benefits to low-income households and that partnerships with MFIs can help NGOs and governments better leverage investements.

Unlocking the Potential of Information Communications Technology to Improve Water and Sanitation Services: Summary of Findings and Recommendations

July 1, 2015

This study provides evidence on how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can be used to leapfrong the water and sanitation sector towards more sustainable service delivery. It sought to not only document experiences of Information and Communication Technology use in the WASH sector, but also analyze them within the framework of enabling factors and barriers in terms of vision, process, customer/user, service delivery, human capacity, governance and finance.

Management of Child Feces: Current Disposal Practices

June 1, 2015

This research brief examines how children's feces are disposed of, a neglected area of research, policy, and program intervention, and there is very little evidence of effective strategies for increasing the safe disposal of children's feces.

What Influences Open Defecation and Latrine Ownership in Rural Households?: Findings from a Global Review

August 1, 2014

In this review, the Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank identifies commonalities and differences across sanitation market research studies it has conducted in eight countries since 2006 to determine factors that affect sanitation behaviors. Three specific behaviors -- open defecation, acquisition of toilets, and improvement of latrines -- are covered.

Making Toilets More Affordable for the Poor Through Microfinance

August 1, 2014

Over a 13-month period, the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) worked with a number of partners, including the international non-profit Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) and International Development Enterprises (iDE), to pilot a sanitation financing program to address the challenge of reaching low-income households with improved sanitation solutions. This learning note presents the lessons from this pilot to promote scale-up in Cambodia and to inform similar efforts in other countries.

What Works at Scale? Distilling the Critical Success Factors for Scaling Up Rural Sanitation

April 25, 2014

This paper is based on the Knowledge Sharing Forum of the same name. It examines the conditions for success in sanitation programs and strategies that lead to robust implementation in various countries.

Investing in the Next Generation: Growing Tall and Smart With Toilets

November 1, 2013

This brief shows that the level of open defecation in a community is associated with children of shorter stature in Cambodia. By looking at the change in defecation levels and average child height between 2005 and 2010 in Cambodian provinces, the study is able to show that improvements in sanitation access played a substantial role in increasing average child height over the same five years.

Poor-Inclusive Urban Sanitation: An Overview

August 1, 2013

This paper provides an overview of urban sanitation while highlighting the need to address this challenge with emphasis on including slum dwellers and poor communities that have typically been neglected.

The Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in Pakistan

May 1, 2013

This study conducts evidence based research to help advocacy in the sanitation sector. It aims to empirically estimate the economic impacts of current poor sanitation conditions in Pakistan as well as the economic benefits of options for improved conditions.

Impact Evaluation of a Large-Scale Rural Sanitation Project in Indonesia

February 1, 2013

Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) is the Indonesian component of World Bank Water and Sanitation Program's Scaling Up Rural Sanitation initiative. The approach consists of raising awareness of the problems of open defecation; marketing sanitation products; and supporting policies, financing, training, and regulations that are conducive to these efforts. Therefore, desired outcomes of the program include changes in perception of the consequences of poor sanitation, toilet construction and access to improved sanitation, reduction in open defecation, and child health outcomes. This impact evaluation assesses these results using a randomized controlled trial (RCT), and unlike many RCTs that are carried out on pilot programs, it looks at an intervention that has been implemented at scale and led by the government under real-world conditions, providing more reliable estimates. TSSM is associated with sanitation improvements overall, particularly among wealthier households that had no sanitation prior to the intervention.

You Manage What You Measure: Using Mobile Phones to Strengthen Outcome Monitoring in Rural Sanitation

October 1, 2012

This paper addresses the sanitation challenge in India, where it is home to the majority of people defecating in the open in the world and also one of the top rapidly growing emerging economies. The paper focuses on the need for a reliable and timely monitoring system to ensure investments in sanitation lead to commensurate outcomes.

Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China

September 1, 2012

This study aims to provide evidence for decision making on future options for sustainable sanitation development, focusing on the selection of economically viable technology options, as well as efficient delivery modes. It demonstrates the benefits associated with sanitation, particularly in the less developed and rural parts of China, and the importance of sanitation in promoting economic development.