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Reducing Inequalities in Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene in the Era of the Sustainable Development Goals

August 15, 2017

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the World Bank's corporate goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity call for specific attention to the poor and vulnerable. The overarching objective of the SDGs is to end poverty in all its forms, but their key difference from the earlier Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is the integration of social, economic, and environmental goals (UN 2015). This has significant implications for reforms aimed at improving service delivery. With this understanding as its guiding compass, the Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Poverty Diagnostic Initiative focuses on what it would take to reduce existing inequalities in WASH services worldwide. This report, a synthesis of that global initiative, offers new insights on how data can be used to inform allocation decisions to reduce inequalities and prioritize investment in WASH to boost human capital. It also offers a fresh perspective on service delivery that considers how institutional arrangements affect the incentives of a range of actors.

Approaches to Capital Financing and Cost Recovery in Sewerage Schemes Implemented in India: Lessons Learned and Approaches for Future Schemes

March 1, 2016

This report aims to highlight some of the successful financial management practices adopted by Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in India when implementing sewerage schemes. The findings are presented in two parts, the first part of the report discusses the approach adopted for capital financing of sewerage schemes in the state of Tamil Nadu, and the second part presents the findings from a review of the operational expenditure and revenue generation of various ULBs across the country. The aim of the report is to share successful capital financing and cost recovery practices adopted by ULBs in India and enable improvement in provisioning of sewerage systems (only where feasible and economically viable, typically only in larger towns with a population greater than 50,000) and ensure availability of sufficient funds for proper Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of the schemes implemented.

Community Slum Sanitation in India: A Practitioner's Guide

March 1, 2016

Following the launch of the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP, 2008), a number of initiatives were taken: states formulated their State Sanitation Strategies, and more than 150 cities drafted or are in the process of drafting the City Sanitation Plans (CSPs, by March 2014). The NUSP recommended development of special strategies for slums and poor settlements as an integral part of the CSPs. But the significant presence of slums in Indian cities (estimated between 9 and 14 million, or 12 to 16 percent of India's 79 million urban households), and the specific difficulties that these settlements face in accessing basic sanitation (and other) services, demanded a greater understanding of the conditions, and exploration of strategies used to address these. Section one presents a short introduction to the context of urban India and urban sanitation, followed by a brief review of programmatic responses by GoI to improve slum sanitation services. Thereafter, the guide draws out the critical factors or drivers using examples from successful community slum sanitation initiatives reported from the urban centers selected for this study. A set of generic activity clusters and steps are included at the end the preparatory, planning, implementation, and M&E stages of community sanitation initiatives.