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A War in a Pandemic: Implications of the Ukraine crisis and COVID-19 on global governance of migration and remittance flows

May 13, 2022

This Migration and Development Brief (number 36 in the series) discusses the anticipated effects of the Russian invasion of Ukraine on migration and remittance flows. And ahead of the International Migration Review Forum to be held in May 2022, the brief indicates how the global governance of migration can be strengthened and cross-border remittance flows facilitated. Developments concerning migration-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators for which the World Bank is a custodian--increasing the volume of remittances as a percentage of gross domestic product (SDG indicator 17.3.2) and reducing remittance costs (SDG indicator 10.c.1)--are also discussed.

Rwanda Economic Update, January 2021 : Protect and Promote Human Capital in a Post-COVID-19 World

January 1, 2021

The lockdown, social distancing, and increased costs associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have reduced output and employment, increased poverty, and depressed trade transactions; in the absence of a strong response by government, output will be lower over the next decade due to COVID-19. The pandemic-driven rise in the fiscal deficit is increasing public debt, thus exacerbating existing challenges to sustainability and increasing the urgency of shifting from large public investments to human capital development as the main driver of growth. The government's rapid response to the pandemic has succeeded in keeping the population share of new infections and of deaths well below that of most other countries. However, critical health services, particularly childhood immunization and nutrition services, have been disrupted, which is increasing stunting and preventable diseases. The combination of poorer nutrition, limited health services, learning losses from school closures, and the likelihood that some children (particularly adolescent girls and children from poor households) may never return to school will reduce incomes and productivity over the medium term. The government responded rapidly and effectively to the challenges posed by the pandemic, putting in place the Economic Recovery Plan (ERP) to support households and firms, quickly imposing constraints on mobility to limit the spread of the disease, ramping up social protection programs, and setting up remote learning. Key priorities going forward include: (i) improving the government's expenditure allocation, financial management and revenue mobilization; (ii) strengthening the resilience of the health system and preparing for administration of a vaccine; (iii) reducing learning losses (targeting the most vulnerable), improving skills and strengthening accountability in education; and (iv) expanding the flagship social safety net program, building adaptive systems to respond quickly to shocks, improving poverty targeting of safety net programs, and scaling up the use of digital payments.

Safely Managed Sanitation in High-Density Rural Areas : Turning Fecal Sludge into a Resource Through Innovative Waste Management

September 1, 2019

Safely managed sanitation is a focus of the SDGs and central to stunting reduction and early childhood survival, both identified by the World Bank's Human Capital Index as critical for humans to develop their full potential. In 2015, 4.5 billion people lacked access to safely managed sanitation. This paper finds that hundreds of millions more people are exposed to significant health risks due to unsafely managed sanitation. This report explores the challenges of fecal sludge management (FSM) in densely populated rural areas and it presents some typical current practices, examples of financially sustainable FSM services, and global innovations in waste management with potential replicability for FSM. Its aim is to promote dialogue on how to move from the Millennium Development Goals' approach to rural sanitation—effectively, building toilets—to the Sustainable Development Goals' approach: safely managed sanitation systems. The paper concludes that the sanitation service chain spans both private and public goods, and market mechanisms are not always adequate to mitigate the safety risks. Public funding will be needed to cover the affordability gap and address safely managed sanitation, requiring a clear and long-term commitment and support from government. The case is similar to that for networked sanitation: without public support, improving the safety of existing FSM services is likely to decrease profit margins and potentially render businesses unviable.

Marine Pollution in the Caribbean: Not a Minute to Waste

May 30, 2019

The economic prosperity and sustainable development of the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR), and in particular Small Island Developing States (SIDS), greatly depend on the wealth of resources provided by the oceans. The marine ecosystems of the Caribbean provide food, livelihoods, and income to millions of people through fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, transportation, and resilience to climate change. In 2017, gross revenues from marine and coastal tourism alone were estimated to total US$57 billion. Building a sustainable ocean economy — the Blue Economy — through better and more effective use of marine resources holds enormous potential for income growth, community development, environmental protection, and poverty reduction.

Evaluating the Potential of Container-Based Sanitation

February 14, 2019

In the face of urbanization, alternative approaches are needed to deliver adequate and inclusive sanitation services across the full sanitation service chain. Container-based sanitation (CBS) consists of an end-to-end service—that is, one provided along the whole sanitation service chain—that collects excreta hygienically from toilets designed with sealable, removable containers and strives to ensure that the excreta is safely treated, disposed of, and reused. This report builds on four case studies (SOIL – Haiti, x-runner – Peru, Clean Team – Ghana, Sanergy – Kenya) to assess the role CBS can play in a portfolio of solutions for citywide inclusive sanitation (CWIS) services. The authors conclude that CBS approaches should be part of the CWIS portfolio of solutions, especially for poor urban populations for whom alternative on-site or sewer-based sanitation services might not be appropriate. Customer satisfaction with existing services is high and services provided by existing CBS providers are considered safe but have some areas for improvement. While the proportion of total CBS service costs covered by revenues is still small, CBS services are considered to be priced similarly to the main sanitation alternatives in their service areas. Recommendations include adopting a conducive policy and regulatory environment and exploring ways to ensure that CBS services are sustainably financed. The report also identifies areas for further analysis.

Residential Piped Water in Uganda

December 19, 2018

This World Bank Study provides a basic diagnostic of residential piped water coverage and affordability in Uganda and its relationship with poverty using a series of nationally representative household surveys for the period 2002–13. The study fi rst analyzes trends in piped water coverage using both administrative and survey data. Demand-side and supply-side factors reducing the take-up of piped water service by households in areas where the service is available are estimated. The study also documents the extent to which piped water coverage enables households to shift time use away from domestic tasks toward market work, and the benefi cial effect that this may have on poverty. The targeting performance to the poor of water subsidies is estimated and results obtained for Uganda are compared with estimates for other countries. Finally, the study analyzes issues related to affordability—including the impact of the tariff increase of 2012 on household consumption, poverty, and piped water affordability—as well as the cost for households to connect to the piped water network.

Water and Sanitation in Uganda

December 19, 2018

This World Bank Study provides a basic diagnostic of access to safe water and sanitation in Uganda and their relationship with poverty. The analysis relies on a series of nationally representative household surveys for the period 2002–13, as well as on qualitative data collection. The study first relies on household surveys to analyze trends in access to safe water and some of the constraints faced by households for access. The issue of the cost of water for households without a connection to the piped water network is discussed. This includes a discussion of public stand pipes. Next, qualitative data are presented on the obstacles faced by households in accessing safe water. The next two chapters are devoted to sanitation. The focus is again first on analyzing household survey data about sanitation, including with respect to toilets, bathrooms, waste disposal, and hand washing, and next on an analysis of qualitative data from focus groups and key informants. Finally, the study reviews some of the policies and programs that have been implemented in order to improve access to safe water and sanitation for the poor as well as options going forward.

What a Waste 2.0 : A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050

September 20, 2018

By 2050, the world is expected to generate 3.40 billion tons of waste annually, increasing drastically from today's 2.01 billion tons. What a Waste 2.0: A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050 aggregates extensive solid waste data at the national and urban levels. It estimates and projects waste generation to 2030 and 2050. Beyond the core data metrics from waste generation to disposal, the report provides information on waste management costs, revenues, and tariffs; special wastes; regulations; public communication; administrative and operational models; and the informal sector.

Beyond Scarcity : Water Security in the Middle East and North Africa

August 28, 2017

Water has always been a source of risks and opportunities in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet rapidly changing socioeconomic, political, and environmental conditions make water security a different, and more urgent, challenge than ever before. This report shows that achieving water security means much more than coping with water scarcity. It means managing water resources in a sustainable, efficient, and equitable way. It also involves delivering water services reliably and affordably, to reinforce relationships between service providers and water users and contribute to a renewed social contract. Water security also entails mitigating water-related risks such as floods and droughts. Water security is an urgent target, but it is also a target within reach. A host of potential solutions to the region's water management challenges exist. To make these solutions work, clear incentives are needed to change the way water is managed, conserved, and allocated. To make these solutions work, countries in the region will also need to better engage water users, civil society, and youth. The failure of policies to address water challenges can have severe impacts on people's well-being and political stability. The strategic question for the region is whether countries will act with foresight and resolve to strengthen water security, or whether they will wait to react to the inevitable disruptions of water crises.

Sustainability Assessment of Rural Water Service Delivery Models : Findings of a Multi-Country Review

August 25, 2017

With 2.1 billion people – mostly in rural areas – lacking safely managed drinking water and reported low rural water supply functionality rates, the Sustainable Development Goals pose a triple challenge: to reach unserved mostly rural population groups, to raise service levels, and to sustain existing and future services. This assessment uses a multi-country case study approach to identify good practices and challenges toward building sector capacity and strengthening sustainable service delivery models for rural areas. Recognizing the limitations of the Demand Responsive Approach, the emergence of various management models, the identified need for ongoing support to rural service providers, and the critical role of enabling institutions and policies beyond the community-level, the added value of this assessment lies in: i) the development of a comprehensive analytical framework that can be used to analyze and operationalize a more sustainable service delivery approach for rural water supply; ii) the rich set of cases and good practices from the 16 countries informing the global body of "knowledge in implementation," and iii) the formulation of recommendations and policy directions to improve the sustainability of services depending on sector development stage. Policy recommendations are centered around five areas: institutional capacity, financing, asset management, water resources management, and monitoring and regulatory oversight.

Transitioning From the MDGs to the SDGs

November 9, 2016

This UNDP-World Bank Report pulls together the main lessons learned from the MDG Reviews for the UN system and for its engagement at the country level, which took place at the UN System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB). The Reviews, which brought together UN and World Bank Group staff, systematically identified the country situation, the bottlenecks to MDG attainment, and potential solutions to be implemented. Since many MDGs have been absorbed into the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), many of the observations and solutions provided could prove useful to the implementation of the SDGs.Sixteen countries from across the world and the subregion of the Pacific Island countries took part in the CEB reviews, addressing several different MDGs.These strongly advocated for cross-sectoral and cross-institutional thinking within the UN system to accelerate progress on off-track MDG targets. Bottleneck analysis, proposed under the MDG Acceleration Framework (MAF), helped UN system organizations fully appreciate that investing in solutions within a particular sector may be necessary, but not sufficient to gain enough momentum to meet a particular target.The CEB reviews showed that significant gains were possible when agencies came together to support an acceleration goal. Country teams improved the alignment and coherence of UN system activities on the ground, bridged sectoral silos while still valuing the specialized expertise of individual agencies, and more effectively advocated with governments and other partners. High-level coordination between UN country teams and World Bank country offices was repeatedly recognized as an accomplishment.Three main conclusions clearly apply to the transition from the MDGs to the 2030 Agenda:Support cross-institutional collaboration between the UN system and the World Bank;Advance better understanding of cross-sectoral work, and the interrelatedness of goals and targets; andPromote global and high-level advocacy.

Shock Waves: Managing the Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty

November 5, 2016

Ending poverty and stabilizing climate change will be two unprecedented global achievements and two major steps toward sustainable development. But the two objectives cannot be considered in isolation: they need to be jointly tackled through an integrated strategy. This report brings together those two objectives and explores how they can more easily be achieved if considered together. It examines the potential impact of climate change and climate policies on poverty reduction. It also provides guidance on how to create a ?win-win?? situation so that climate change policies contribute to poverty reduction and poverty-reduction policies contribute to climate change mitigation and resilience building. The key finding of the report is that climate change represents a significant obstacle to the sustained eradication of poverty, but future impacts on poverty are determined by policy choices: rapid, inclusive, and climate-informed development can prevent most short-term impacts whereas immediate pro-poor, emissions-reduction policies can drastically limit long-term ones.