Clear all

265 results found

reorder grid_view

Philadelphia 2022: The State of the City

April 20, 2022

Two years into the pandemic, Philadelphia is showing signs of an economic and public health recovery, yet some serious challenges remain.

Lessons From Implementation of the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy

March 22, 2021

Under the European Union's current Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), 2020 had been targeted as the year toachieve a major change in fisheries management: sustainable exploitation rates in place for all stocks. Despiteprogress, the EU did not meet this goal.The story of the policy's implementation begins in 2013, when, after decades of overfishing and ineffectivefisheries management, the European Parliament and the EU's then-28 member state governments agreed onfar-reaching reforms to the previous CFP.1 These included setting sustainable catch limits with the objective torestore stocks, maintain healthy ecosystems and safeguard stable, profitable fisheries for the EU fleet. In 2014,the reformed CFP entered into force, with a focus on bringing fishing pressure in line with scientific advice. Thepolicy required fisheries ministers to ensure sustainable exploitation rates "by 2015 where possible and on aprogressive, incremental basis at the latest by 2020 for all stocks."Now, after the 2020 deadline has passed, it's clear that the reforms have brought progress. But the data alsoshows that policymakers are still setting too many catch limits above the levels recommended by scientists, withdecision-making suffering from a short-term approach and lower ambition than the policy requires.In 2008, The Pew Charitable Trusts began working with 192 organisations in the OCEAN2012 coalition to ensurethat a reformed CFP set ambitious, science-based and achievable objectives. In the years since the reforms cameinto force, Pew and several other groups have pushed to hold decision-makers accountable in the efforts to endoverfishing in North-Western European waters and allow stocks to recover to healthy, productive levels.This report presents eight key lessons learned from this work to help implement the EU's fisheries policy, eachlesson augmented by a deeper look at a specific issue. The experiences in implementing the EU policy show that:1. Good management works.As the experience of fisheries managers around the world has shown, when steps are taken to safeguardthe sustainability of stocks and fisheries for the long term, the results include environmental, economicand social benefits.2. Decreased ambition since 2013 led to under-implementation.Decision-makers approached implementation of most major pillars of the CFP pragmatically, toooften showing less political will than needed to deliver the reforms as intended. This led to diminishedexpectations from stakeholders and EU institutions on what could be delivered, almost from the beginning.3. Decisions often favoured maintaining the status quo rather than changing behaviour.Despite ambitious CFP goals intended to change outcomes in the water, decision-makers often adjustedmanagement measures to fit existing patterns of fishing – to the detriment of achieving the objectives.4. EU decision-making remains siloed.Fisheries policy processes often follow their own internal logic, so a focus on fisheries yields and economicoutcomes may overlook other priorities, such as the urgent need to deliver on wider EU environmentalrequirements and commitments.5. Short-term thinking persists in EU management.A long-term perspective – one of the key aims of the 2014 CFP – often took a back seat to immediatepolitical expediency. For example, fisheries ministers continued to set excessive catch limits on the basisthat they were a "compromise" between short- and long-term aims or were necessary for unexplainedeconomic reasons. 6. Clarity on progress is too often undermined by unclear and inconsistent reporting.Rather than measuring progress against the aims of the CFP, official reporting often uses irrelevant orchanging benchmarks, such as trend comparisons, which frequently do not correspond to the CFP's legalobjectives. This confuses the public about the policy's progress and leads stakeholders to draw differentconclusions on priorities.7. Opaque decision-making hampers progress.A lack of public communication on the scientific basis for European Commission proposals onmanagement measures such as catch limits, and the rationale for legislators' subsequent decisions, toooften prevented scrutiny of decision-making by stakeholders and EU institutions, and undermined trust inthe process.8. Stocks shared with non-EU countries present challenges in achieving CFP aims.Jointly managed stocks require more complex decision-making than stocks that are managed by oneentity. That increases the need for collaborative improvements, especially in the wake of the UK'sdeparture from the EU.To realise the ambitions set by legislators in 2013, EU policymakers need to take the final steps to implementthe CFP in full. The health of marine ecosystems, European fisheries, and the communities that depend on themrequire the sustainable, ecosystem-based management approaches set out in the policy, without exceptions andloopholes. The findings in this review of progress can help guide decision-makers and stakeholders on the workthat remains to fully implement the CFP, and in shaping future priorities for European fisheries. 

A Path to Creating the First Generation of High Seas Protected Areas

March 31, 2020

Beyond the horizon, more than 200 nautical miles from shore, lies an area of the ocean known as the high seas. These waters, beyond the jurisdiction of any nation, make up roughly two-thirds of the ocean and cover nearly half of the planet's surface. Much is still to be learned about these areas, but scientists know they teem with life and are among the largest reservoirs of ocean biodiversity. The high seas support abundant fisheries; provide habitat and migratory routes for whales, sharks, sea turtles, and seabirds; and harbor remarkable ecosystems, such as deep-water corals and other majestic marine life.

How States Are Expanding Broadband Access

February 1, 2020

This report from the Pew Charitable Trusts highlights practices for state programs aimed at expanding broadband access to un- and underserved areas.Based on interviews with more than three hundred representatives of state broadband programs, Internet service providers, local governments, and broadband coalitions, the report identified five promising and mutually reinforcing practices: stakeholder outreach and engagement at both the state and local levels; a policy framework with well-defined goals that connects broadband to other policy priorities; planning and capacity building in support of broadband infrastructure projects; funding and operations through grant programs, with an emphasis on accountability and data collection; and program evaluation and evolution to ensure that lessons learned inform the next iteration of goals and activities. The study explores how nine states — California, Colorado, Maine, Minnesota, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin — have adapted and implemented different combinations of those practices to close gaps in broadband access.

Transshipment in the Western and Central Pacific

September 12, 2019

The transshipment of catch, which allows fresh fish to get to market sooner, is a vital but largely hidden part of the global commercial fishing industry. Transshipment involves hundreds of refrigerated cargo vessels, or carrier vessels, roaming the oceans, taking in catch from thousands of fishing vessels and transporting it to shore for processing. While transshipment touches a wide range of seafood products, most is made up of bigeye, yellowfin, and skipjack tuna. Salmon, mackerel, and crab also account for a substantial portion of transshipped products.

Data Sharing Helps Reduce Number of Homeless Veterans

April 1, 2017

Virginia's information analysis assists in determining needs, managing resources.

A Sample Dental Therapy Curriculum for Community Colleges

March 3, 2017

This report, developed in partnership with Community Catalyst, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the Pew Charitable Trusts and the American Association of Community Colleges, provides a rationale for why community colleges are well-positioned to educate students to become dental therapists and a model dental therapy curriculum that community colleges may use to begin developing their own dental therapy educational programs.

Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs: Evidence-based Practices to Optimize Prescriber Use

December 15, 2016

As the opioid crisis continues to ravage communities across the United States, policymakers and public health officials are increasingly using new tools such as prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs)—state-based electronic databases that track the dispensing of certain controlled substances—to stem the misuse of prescription opioids and reduce overdose deaths.   PDMPs can be used to monitor patient use of these drugs and inform prescribing decisions. However, the number of prescribers actually using these databases in clinical care remains low.A new report from The Pew Charitable Trusts and the Institute for Behavioral Health, Heller School for Social Policy and Management at Brandeis University finds that states can increase prescriber use of PDMPs by adopting one or more of eight evidence-based practices:  Prescriber use mandates, or state laws and regulations that require prescribers to view a patient's PDMP data under certain circumstances. Mandates can rapidly increase PDMP utilization and immediately affect prescriber behavior, which can help prevent "doctor shopping"—when patients seek the same or similar drugs from multiple prescribers and pharmacies in a short period.Delegate access, which allows prescribers to authorize someone on staff, such as a nurse or other member of the health care team, to access the PDMP data on their behalf. The majority of states allow delegate access; evidence suggests such access addresses workflow barriers and increases PDMP use.Unsolicited reports, where prescribers are proactively notified about patients who may be at risk for harm based on their controlled substance prescription history. These alerts can help increase prescriber use in two ways: by motivating them to review patient data and informing unenrolled prescribers about the existence of the PDMP.Improving data timeliness, or increasing the frequency at which data are uploaded into PDMP databases. Many states now require dispensers to upload new data on a daily basis, which increases the timeliness of information and encourages PDMP use.Streamlining enrollment by making it easier for prescribers and delegates to register with their state PDMPs. Enrollment is required before clinicians can check PDMP data, so making this process faster and easier can increase use.Educational and promotional initiatives that help prescribers understand how PDMPs work and encourage their use. Such activities can spur enrolled prescribers and delegates to check PDMP data and inform unenrolled clinicians about the value of these databases. Integrating PDMP data with health information technology, which helps prescribers seamlessly access PDMPs through electronic health records or other IT systems. Pilot projects across the country found that prescribers reported PDMP data were easier to access when the system was integrated into daily workflows. Enhancing PDMP user interfaces, or redesigning how data are presented, to help prescribers more quickly analyze prescribing information and make better-informed decisions.Of the eight practices, mandates are the single most effective way to increase prescriber use. But a mandate alone does not mean that prescribers will use the PDMP effectively in clinical decision-making. Therefore, state officials should explore the other seven strategies and adopt a combination of practices that works best for their program. PDMPs can play a critical role in curbing prescription opioid misuse, but only if states take steps to ensure that the data are easy to access and understand. 

Effective Surveillance in the Waters of the Pitcairn Islands Marine Reserve

September 15, 2016

Located in the middle of the South Pacific Ocean, the Pitcairn Islands are a British Overseas Territory and, as of August 2016, home to one of the world's largest fully protected marine reserves. The Pitcairn Islands Marine Reserve, almost 3.5 times the size of the United Kingdom at about 830,000 square kilometres (320,465 square miles), serves as a habitat to at least 1,249 species of marine mammals, seabirds, and fish. It safeguards one of the most pristine ocean environments on Earth. But even for wealthy nations, enforcement of reserve rules—such as prohibitions on commercial fishing and seafloor mining—in such a remote area is challenging and expensive. To address that issue, new methods and cutting-edge technologies have been used to develop an enforcement strategy for this reserve.

The US is an Outlier: Maternal Mortality Rates Rise Since 2000

September 3, 2016

Although the United States recently experienced a slight drop in maternal deaths, the nation's maternal mortality rate has risen steeply since 2000 at the same time it fell by more than a third globally.New data from the University of Washington's Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, a research group funded by the Gates Foundation, indicates that between 2000 and 2015, the maternal mortality rate in the U.S. increased by nearly 47 percent, from 17.1 deaths per 100,000 population to 25.1 deaths.

Mapping Governance Gaps on the High Seas

August 17, 2016

A patchwork of international bodies and treaties manage ocean resources and human activity in areas beyond any state's national jurisdiction. However, these governance bodies vary greatly in terms of their mandate, which determines their geographic scope, their objective, the legally binding nature of decisions they adopt, and whether they regulate one or several activities. Their jurisdictions often overlap, but virtually no mechanisms exist to coordinate across geographic areas and sectors. Too often, this piecemeal governance approach leads to the degradation of the environment and its resources, and makes deploying management and conservation tools such as environmental impact assessments and marine protected areas (MPAs), including marine reserves, challenging both legally and logistically.At the 2010 meeting of the Convention on Biological Diversity, States committed to conserve 10 percent of marine environments, a target reaffirmed in the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. A 2016 study found that in order to successfully conserve healthy ecosystems and help degraded ones recover, 30 percent of the world's ocean needs protection through MPAs, including reserves. In spite of this global need for marine conservation, less than 1 percent of the high seas are fully protected.States have responded to these governance and conservation gaps by committing to develop an "international legally binding instrument … on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction" through the United Nations. In March 2016, the process began with the first of four meetings in which governments will begin developing an agreement to protect the high seas. With sustained momentum, the United Nations General Assembly could fully adopt a treaty by 2020.The following maps help to illustrate the current governance gaps on the high seas and emphasize the critical need for this treaty. For governance organizations to effectively manage and conserve life on the high seas, three key elements are necessary: regulatory authority, a mandate to conserve the ecosystem as a whole, and the ability to manage across multiple sectors. Although some organizations have two of these three elements, they all lack comprehensive mandates to effectively manage and conserve ecosystems on the high seas.

A Vision to Create a British Ocean Legacy Large, Fully Protected Marine Reserves in the United Kingdom's Overseas Territories

July 18, 2016

The ocean covers nearly three-fourths of the globe and is home to almost a quarter of the world's known species—with many more yet to be discovered. It plays an essential role in sustaining life by regulating global chemistry and climate and providing sustenance for billions of people.  But human activities are increasingly threatening the ocean's health. Many experts and island communities now see the creation of marine reserves as a key tool for rebuilding the abundance and diversity of species while strengthening ocean resilience to climate change. Studies show that the ecological benefits of reserves extend well beyond their boundaries. Because of what is known as the 'spillover effect,' thriving populations of fish within closed areas, such as reserves, tend to move into nearby waters. Marine reserves yield the greatest conservation benefits when they are large, highly protected, isolated, well-enforced, and long-standing.