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Climate Finance Shadow Report 2023: Assessing the Delivery of the $100 Billion Commitment

May 6, 2023

In 2009, high-income countries committed in the Copenhagen Accords to mobilize US$100 billion a year by 2020 in climate finance for low- and middle-income countries. Oxfam reported on the progress of this commitment in 2016, 2018 and 2020. This year's report finds that high-income countries have not only failed to deliver on their commitment, but also – as in previous years – generous accounting practices have allowed them to overstate the level of support they have actually provided. Moreover, much of the finance has been provided as loans, which means that it risks increasing the debt burden of the countries it is supposed to help.This paper calls on high-income countries to accelerate the mobilization and provision of climate finance, and to make up the shortfall from previous years, in a way that is equitable and just. High-income countries must provide finance that is transparent, with genuine accountability mechanisms, and that allows for far more local ownership and responsiveness to the needs of communities it is intended to reach. People on the frontlines of the climate crisis must have the funding they were promised for adaptation and mitigation, and to address the loss and damage they are already experiencing as a result of climate impacts.

Private-finance Blending for Development: Risks and Opportunities

February 13, 2017

Aid donors increasingly seek to inject private-sector resources into development by 'blending' official development assistance (ODA) with private finance. There is little evidence of the development impact, and projects often do not align with country ownership, transparency and accountability. It is not always clear whether ODA subsidies are necessary. Blending could support pro-poor projects, such as easing credit constraints for small- and medium-size enterprises. At a minimum, donors must subject blending projects to development effectiveness principles.

Blended Finance: What it is, how it works and how it is used

February 10, 2017

In recent years, 'blending' has become a common development finance term. The practice combines official development assistance with other private or public resources, in order to 'leverage' additional funds from other actors. There is some confusion about its meaning, how it works, and how it fosters development, as well as a significant lack of project data. Blending can be problematic: it does not necessarily support pro-poor activities, often focuses on middle-income countries, and may give preferential treatment to donors' own private-sector firms. Projects may not align with country plans, and commonly fail to incorporate transparency, accountability, and stakeholder participation. This report aims to clarify what blending is, how it works and how it is used, to foster greater understanding of this increasingly prominent development finance mechanism.

Development Cooperation in Crisis

January 4, 2017

At a time of great need, aid and other forms of development cooperation are at risk from current global political and economic trends that threaten international development commitments. In November 2016, representatives from donor countries and developing countries will meet at the second High Level Meeting of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation (GPEDC) in Nairobi, to discuss ways to support and improve development effectiveness. The results of this summit have the potential to affect millions of lives, for better or worse.

En ordre disperse: Des progrès encore insuffisants dans la mise en œuvre de l’approche programme dans le secteur rural au Burkina Faso

November 25, 2016

Au Burkina les partenaires au développement financent la grande majorité des investissements dans le secteur agricole. Au moment de l'élaboration de la deuxième phase du PNSR, les enjeux liés à la coordination et à l'alignement prennent une importance particulière afin d'éviter les duplications et les incohérences, et garantir l'atteinte des résultats du plan global de développement du secteur agricole. L'engagement pris à Malabo en 2014 devant l'Union Africaine de  promouvoir  « la croissance et la transformation accélérées de l'agriculture en Afrique pour une prospérité partagée et de meilleures conditions de vie », ne sera pas possibles sans cet alignement.Aid effectiveness and coordination in Burkina Faso: The agricultural sector and food securityIn Burkina Faso, development partners finance a great majority of investment within the agricultural sector. With the formulation of the country's second National Programme for the Rural Sector (NPRS) currently under way, issues linked to coordination and alignment are of particular importance, in order to avoid duplications and inconsistencies and ensure the goals of the new NPRS are eventually met. The commitment made in Malabo in 2014, before the African Union, to promote 'accelerated agricultural growth and transformation for shared prosperity and improved livelihoods' will not be possible without this alignment.This report recommends that the Government of Burkina Faso strengthen its institutions and its national procedures to ensure the implementation of the new NPRS. Also, development partners should increase the effectiveness, alignment and coordination of their activities during the development of the new NPRS.

'The Longest Lean Season': How urgent action is needed to counter the devastating humanitarian impacts of the El Niño drought in Southern Africa

November 18, 2016

Although the El Niño weather event has ended, the humanitarian needs resulting from the drought in Southern Africa remain huge, and are still deepening. With the next harvests not due until March/April 2017, governments, donors and humanitarian actors must urgently provide food and other assistance to support people through this long, hard lean season. Farmers desperately need seeds and fertilizers if they are to take advantage of predicted rains and produce better harvests next year; a critical shortage in Malawi could lead to a cereal shortfall of nearly one million tons. In addition, all actors must be ready to respond immediately to the damaging impacts of heavy rains forecast across the region.

Assessing Oxfam's Contribution to Changes in Social Norms in VAWG/GBV Programming Globally

October 13, 2016

This document focuses on assessing the outcome of Gender Justice Change Goal: Violence against women is significantly less socially accepted and prevalent by 2019. The key question that frames this evaluation is: how has Oxfam contributed to changing cultural norms and ultimately behaviours to prevent GBV?

Oxfam Strategic Plan Evaluation: Sustainable Food (CG4) Outcome Area

October 13, 2016

This review asks how Oxfam is doing in terms of its intended shift from service delivery to influencing strategies, and how much progress has been made so far in terms of achieving greater food security, income, prosperity and resilience at a large scale (the expected income of CG4). This review also analyses Oxfam Country Strategies to gauge whether they are firmly committing to this new way of doing things. Based on findings, recommendations have been made for Oxfam to further move towards an influencing strategy, rather than direct implementation, to achieve the Sustainable Food Change Goal.

Strategic Outcome Area: Saving Lives, Now and in the Future

October 13, 2016

The Oxfam Strategic Plan 2013-2019: The Power of People Against Poverty guides the confederation's programme, advocacy and campaign priorities. Change Goal 3: Saving Lives, Now and in the Future is one of the six change goals set by the Strategic Plan. This report reviews a sample of nine Oxfam's Humanitarian Crisis responses: the Syrian crisis in Lebanon and Jordan, the South Sudan regional crisis, Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines, the conflict in the Central Republic Africa and Chad, the Ebola crisis in Liberia and Sierra Leone, and the flooding in the Solomon Islands. Most of these crisis were categorised as Category 1 and 2 emergencies.

Effectiveness in Building Resilience: Synthesis report for Oxfam's Resilience Outcome Area

October 10, 2016

As risks related to climate change, natural hazards, population growth, chronic poverty, food insecurity, and inequality intensify for the world's poorest people, Oxfam has prioritized building resilience to shocks and stresses as an important, cross-cutting outcome area across its programming. Resilience capacities aim to enhance the ability of individuals, households, and communities to persist in the face of shocks and stresses, anticipate and adapt to changing environments, and transform the underlying vulnerabilities that leave them exposed to shocks and stresses. This report examines evidence of how Oxfam's interventions have contributed to building these absorptive, adaptive, and transformative capacities. It examines a sample of 23 projects using Oxfam's Effectiveness Reviews and Evaluation Reports.

Unfinished Business: How to close the post-Paris adaptation finance gap

May 13, 2016

Climate change is a brutal reality confronting millions of the world's most vulnerable people. Their need for financial support to adapt to climate extremes is urgent and rising.International support for adaptation falls well short of what is needed. Latest estimates indicate that only 16 percent of international climate finance is currently dedicated to adaptation - a mere $4-6bn per year of which is public finance. Governments in Paris came close, but ultimately failed to agree quantified goals to ensure adaptation finance increases at anywhere close to the scale needed in future.If global cooperation on climate change is to be inclusive, durable and fair, it must leave no one behind. The adaptation finance gap must be addressed urgently with agreement at COP22 in Morocco on a roadmap for the $100bn commitment - one that includes quantified goals for adaptation finance, and progress on accounting and governance of finance flows. 

The Time is Now: Building a human economy for Africa

May 6, 2016

Africa faces economic challenges not seen for many years. Growth is slowing and commodity prices have fallen. Inequality is high and growing fast in many countries. Africa's greatest natural resource, its young people, risks being squandered. Africa is losing billions to corruption, poorly negotiated deals and tax dodging. Citizens are becoming more outspoken and more active - unhappy with the deals their leaders are striking. Leaders must listen to their people. They must crack down on tax dodging and maximize progressive revenues to invest in the classrooms, clinics and crops that will create a more human economy for Africa.