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Gender and Youth Livelihood Programming in Africa

January 23, 2018

This study examines the extent to which interventions supporting young people's access to employment or entrepreneurship opportunities are tailored to address gendered barriers. Its area of focus is Africa, the region prioritized by the Mastercard Foundation in its work. Analysis of primary research conducted with a selection ofMastercard Foundation programs, and secondary research on a broader range of interventions, forms the basis of the report. The primary research was conducted with four Mastercard Foundation partnerships operating in Tanzaniaand Uganda, supplemented by conversations with staff working with those partnerships, and with three other partnerships operating in South Africa, Zambia, and across Africa. The secondary research focused on evaluations and other studies from a larger range of Mastercard Foundation youth livelihoods and youth financial servicespartnerships across the continent, as well as from other (non-Mastercard Foundation) youthlivelihoods programs. 

Africa Climate Change Resilience Alliance: Phase 2 Synthesis Evaluation, final report

June 23, 2017

ACCRA, which began implementing its programme in Mozambique, Uganda and Ethiopia in 2009, works with national and local governments and civil society groups in the countries where its programmes are implemented to tackle complex climate change issues and work towards increasing community adaptive capacities, transforming governance systems and achieving climate justice.This evaluation of phase 2 of the programme used a participatory, reflexive and theory-informed methodology to assess the extent to which the programme objectives were met. Also available are case studies on Mozambique and Uganda; see downloads on this page.

Sanitation under Stress: How Can Urban Services Respond to Acute Migration?

November 1, 2016

This working paper aims to identify key research questions around the successes and failures of urban governance structures in delivering essential services to populations following large migration movements.It does so through a review of the existing literature on the subject. It then unpacks how conflict-induced migration has affected Jordan's urban infrastructure and systems for the provision of basic services.In conclusion, we call for a research agenda that can help utilities, governments, non-governmental organisations and other service providers to better understand and overcome the challenges of sanitation provision in urban contexts 'under stress', without reinforcing existing inequalities or creating new ones, and to progress towards realising the Sustainable Development Goals' aspirations for 'universal access to adequate and equitable sanitation' by 2030.

Projecting Progress: Are Cities on Track to Achieve the SDGs by 2030?

October 1, 2016

This report explores for the first time the scale of the challenge for 20 cities across the world to reach selected targets set out in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). More than half of the targets included will require a profound acceleration of efforts if they are to be achieved by the majority of selected cities. Targets that are not on course to be met by the majority of cities studied include ending child malnutrition, achieving full and productive female employment, access to adequate housing and access to drinking water and sanitation.The report makes a series of recommendations to increase progress towards the SDGs, including:Central governments and donors should work to strengthen local governments' capacities.Government and city administrations should invest more in ways to monitor progress on the SDGs.Statistical offices' and cities' information systems should improve the data available.

Improving WASH Service Delivery in Protracted Crises: The Case of the Democratic Republic of Congo

August 1, 2016

Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) services during humanitarian emergencies and immediate recovery phases is essential for saving lives and responding to basic needs, yet choices about how WASH services are delivered can undermine future development and peace. Longer-term interventions can also overlook how they equip communities, households and government to prepare and respond to future emergencies. This is increasingly evident in protracted or recurrent crises, in which overlapping and cyclical phases of emergency, relief, recovery and development interventions coexist. In these contexts, practitioners and academics alike have acknowledged the problem of reconciling the fundamentally different institutional cultures, assumptions, values, structures and ways of working that characterise the humanitarian and the development communities.In this report, we analyse humanitarian and development approaches in a specific sector, in a particular country: WASH interventions in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We consider how and why siloes have arisen. We argue that the problem is not so much about filling a 'gap' between humanitarian and development siloes, but about aligning the principles and practices of both communities in specific contexts so that the overall response can meet changing needs and constraints. We identify a number of ways through which improved complementarity might be achieved, differentiating between national and sub-national levels.

Climate Change Spending in Ethiopia: Recommendations to bridge the funding gap for climate financing

January 28, 2016

The Government of Ethiopia considers climate change to be one of its priorities in responding to the country's long-term development needs. The nation's widely acclaimed Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) strategy has called for annual spending of $7.5bn. With federal budgetary resources for climate change relevant actions estimated to be in the order of $440m per year, and international sources adding an uncertain amount that may be in the tens of millions (USD) per year, there appears to be a major financing gap.Therefore, if the CRGE strategy is to be delivered, and the lives of the country's most vulnerable people made more resilient, much more effort needs to be exerted to mobilize additional resources both domestically and externally. In particular, international commitments on climate finance need to be realized. This is now a matter of urgency for Ethiopia, as it is for many other African States. Drawing on research by the Climate Science Centre of Addis University and the Overseas Development Institute, this policy brief, supported by the ACCRA programme, sets out recommendations to bridge the funding gap for climate financing in Ethiopia.

Progress Under Scrutiny: Poverty Reduction in Pakistan

October 15, 2015

Consumption-based poverty in Pakistan fell sharply between 1990 and 2010, according to official poverty data. Nonetheless the mainstream narrative on poverty reduction in the country remains highly contested. Key sources of evidence show improvements that are commensurate with a decrease in poverty, while others raise doubts over this decrease. The policy space in which poverty reduction is debated is also highly polarised, as revealed in the positions of multiple stakeholders involved in policy, research and civil society in Pakistan. An analysis of official poverty data shows how the estimates may be biased -- both owing to technical flaws and to the politics of measurement. As a result, it is surprisingly difficult to reach a definitive conclusion as to whether poverty reduced between 1990 and 2010 and if the stated progress is real. We discuss the implications of the high levels of contestation over official poverty data as well as the need to understand better the types of evidence that the government must produce to defend its policies to alleviate poverty, and for key stakeholders to accept these as credible. We also discuss the steps that the country is taking to depoliticise the measurement and analysis of poverty -- in and of themselves signs of progress.

Speaking Truth To Power: Why Energy Distribution, More Than Generation, Is Africa's Poverty Reduction Challenge

May 27, 2015

This paper revisits the roles that energy plays in poverty reduction. First, while energy does not reduce poverty itself, it delivers energy services. These services can improve poor people's welfare both directly by enhancing their own productivity, education and health, and indirectly by changing the economy around them. The paper provides a simplified framework for thinking about these energy services, and then reviews the literature on their importance to poverty reduction. From this framework, we draw a series of three important conclusions about energy priorities and their implications for poverty reduction and development.Tackling energy poverty will have less to do with ambitious expansion of electricity capacity, and more to do with ambitious distribution of energy services to poor people.Expansion in centralized power generation serves industry, the services sector and already-connected households, before it serves the poor.Distributed, clean energy interventions are best suited to tackling energy poverty -- and poverty more generally.

'Localising' the Post-2015 Agenda: What Does It Mean In Practice?

January 7, 2015

'Localising' the Post-2015 agenda is most commonly understood as the role that regional and local governments play in the implementation of a new set of goals. Subnational governments have responsibilities (either directly or shared with central government or in partnership with other stakeholders) for service provision in many areas related to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In order to deliver services effectively and help achieve the SDGs, they need to have adequate capacity and resources.In fact, the important role that local government play in a new development agenda has been recognised in a number of key inputs to the Post-2015 process. The High-Level Panel made this clear in its report to the UN Secretary-General. It stated that "the most pressing issue is not rural versus urban but how to foster a local, geographic approach to the post-2015 agenda. The Panel believes this can be done by disaggregating data by place, and giving local authorities a bigger role in setting priorities, executing plans, monitoring results and engaging with local firms and communities"

Financing the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals: A Rough Roadmap

December 15, 2014

We regroup the main types of global development finance into three clusters: concessional public finance (including domestic taxes), public borrowing on market-related terms, and private finance. We look at the main purposes they can be used for, and their interdependence. We consider the global outlook for capital markets, the determinants of country creditworthiness and why grant aid should be prioritised for less creditworthy countries. We suggest that financing plans for most of the new Sustainable Development Goals should be developed at the country level rather than globally, so that key trade-offs can be fully explored. We look at specific policies to unlock access to private sector participation in five key areas -- including social services. We introduce a Market Aid Index to help track donor engagement with the private sector. We investigate how a country's mix of development finance changes as it grows -- the so-called 'missing middle' dilemma. We find that public resources overall fall continuously until a country is well into middle income status, as international assistance falls faster than tax revenues rise. Static per capita income thresholds are becoming increasingly unreliable guides to resource allocation. We look at alternative groupings, especially taking into account fiscal capacity, creditworthiness and vulnerability. We assess the recent literature on trade-offs between rapid growth and climate change mitigation imperatives. We examine the geography of public climate finance, which is intrinsically different from that of development aid, and the lack of a credible 'additionality' test for funding the former over and above the latter. We therefore consider how the limited public grant element so far available should best be rationed, to limit the scope for distortions. We revisit the role of the multilateral development banks' market-related windows, in view of the missing middle problem. We consider what factors underpin their secular stagnation, and how to overcome them. We summarise other specific international reform options in response to our analysis, on private sector contributions, market-related lending and climate finance. We conclude by contrasting two alternative world views: (1) making international public finance a complement to private finance everywhere, and (2) deliberately focusing public stakes where the private sector is not present. We suggest a way forward.

Planning for an Uncertain Future: Promoting adaptation to climate change through flexible and forward-looking decision making

May 8, 2014

The need for decision making that is flexible, forward-looking and able to adapt to the unexpected is clear. One approach for achieving this is 'Flexible and Forward-Looking Decision Making' (FFDM). But what is it, and how can it be operationalised in practice? This report documents the activities of the Africa Climate Change Resilience Alliance (ACCRA) in seeking to strengthen FFDM among district development actors. It describes research carried out while trialling an innovative and interactive tool to promote FFDM - a 'game-enabled reflection approach' - accompanied by capacity-building activities. ACCRA undertook case studies at the district level in three countries; Uganda, Ethiopia, and Mozambique. Building on these three case studies, this report outlines key findings and makes recommendations on how to better support decision making processes for an uncertain future. It does so in view of helping to understand the use of FFDM as well as the effectiveness and limitations of a game-enabled reflection approach. 

Investigating Resilience Thresholds in sub-Saharan Africa

May 2, 2014

‘Getting to zero' - the post-2015 development aim of eradicating extreme poverty by 2030 - involves not just ensuring that people currently in poverty escape from it but also that people do not fall into poverty in the future. Is there a ‘resilience threshold': a line which, once people are living over, means that they are highly unlikely to live in poverty in the future? If such a threshold exists, what form does it take? Is it dependent upon achieving a certain level of income/expenditure; a particular number of years of education or access to a particular type of (informal) insurance arrangement? Using data from Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda, this Oxfam GB and Chronic Poverty Advisory Network research report explores the multi-dimensional issue of resilience.