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Defining the Nonprofit Sector: Poland

January 1, 2000

The role that voluntary organisations played in the breakthroughs of 1989 occasionally overshadows the larger historical significance of the non-profit sector in Poland. In fact, civic efforts have a long-standing history in Polish society. Efforts to alleviate poverty, bolster the national spirit, and preserve Polish culture became important social, cultural and political forces after Poland lost its independence in the 18th century.

Defining The Nonprofit Sector: Ireland

January 1, 1998

This Working Paper discusses Ireland and its voluntary, or non-profit, sector. Irish non-profit organisations have a history dating back to the middle of the last century with significant involvement in several fields, most notably health, education and social services. The non-profit sector in Ireland encompasses different types of organisations with different legal forms which are described in this publication.