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Government Investment in Sanitation

April 1, 2016

In May 2015, African leaders committed to budget allocations amounting to 0.5% of their countries'respective Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to sanitation and hygiene by 2020. Specifically, thiscommitment was part of the Ngor Declaration adopted at the fourth African Conference on Sanitationand Hygiene (AfricaSan) by ministers responsible for sanitation and hygiene.1 This brief explores thecontext of this commitment: how much are governments currently investing in sanitation? How can thisinvestment be increased?

Applying a Life-Cycle Costs Approach to Water

January 1, 2013

This working paper presents findings and recommendations from the application of a life-cycle costs approach (LCCA) to water supply services in rural communities and small towns1 in four countries -- Andhra Pradesh (India), Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mozambique.

Providing a Basic Level of Water and Sanitation Services that Last: Cost Benchmarks

October 1, 2012

Data collected by WASHCost using the life-cycle costs approach suggest benchmarks for the capital and recurrent costs of providing basic levels of sustainable water supply and sanitation service. The benchmarks should be interpreted with the understanding that local contexts can greatly influence cost. Nevertheless, the ranges presented will be useful for planning, assessing sustainability, and monitoring, and expenditure that significantly deviates is more likely to result in reduced service levels or long-term failure.

A Hidden Resource: Household-led Rural Water Supply in Ethiopia

January 1, 2012

Self supply as a strategy for WASH is defined as "improvement to water supplies delivered largely or wholly through user investment usually at household level." The two research studies reported on in this paper examined self supply in rural Ethiopia, gaining insights on the performance of existing family wells, factors that affect the decision of families to build their own wells and the way they use them, and elements of the enabling environment that can be targeted to promote self supply.

Assessing Hygiene Cost-Effectiveness

December 1, 2011

This paper introduces "hygiene effectiveness levels" as a tool for standardized analysis of costs and outcomes of hygiene promotion interventions. At the time of publication, the framework was being tested in WASHCost focus countries.

Briefing Note 1A - Life-Cycle Costs Approach: Costing Sustainable Services

November 1, 2011

This briefing note uses an accounting framework, the life-cycle costs approach (LCCA), to explain the main cost components for water and sanitation in rural and peri-urban areas. The briefing note explains the building blocks used in the LCCA, then shows how this approach estimates the true cost of extending sustainable and good quality water and sanitation services to the poorest. The LCCA approach provides the most useful answer to: "What is the cost per year per person of delivering clean water and good sanitation services?" Detailed cost breakdowns are available in the annex.

Ladders for Assessing and Costing Water Service Delivery, 2nd Edition

November 1, 2011

This working paper provides a framework for data analysis of life-cycle costs. This paper explores costs at three levels including: 1) total aggregate services across the whole population; 2) within different service levels; and 3) between technology types. Service level is defined as a collection of indicators of service provision, together with acceptable ranges for these indicators. The ladder is a useful metaphor for the idea that a progression should take place from lower to higher levels of service. This structure helps data analysis in different countries, related not only to the technologies being used, but also to the terms of the domestic water services being received. This second edition reflects the experiences of applying this methodology in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mozambique and India (Andhra Pradesh).

Arrangements and Cost of Providing Support to Rural Water Service Providers

November 1, 2011

This paper is about the costs of providing direct and indirect support to rural water service provision. It provides an overview of the features such support entails, how these features can be organized, what they cost and how they can be financed. It also provides recommendations to countries for strengthening support. The paper is based on a desk review of existing literature from seven countries and an analysis of primary cost data collected by the WASHCost project in Andhra Pradesh (India), Mozambique and Ghana in 2010 and 2011. Support to service providers in the form of monitoring, technical assistance and (re)training of service providers is called direct support whereas indirect support refers to aspects such as macro-level planning and policy making. Direct support can be provided in different forms: by specialized agencies, by local government or even by an association of service providers. However, the nature, scope and frequency of such support are often not sufficiently defined. There is, therefore, still little quantitative evidence that supports the premise that direct support has a positive impact on the quality and sustainability of services.

Promoting Good Hygiene Practices: Key Elements and Practical Lessons

July 18, 2011

Summarizes papers and case studies about promoting hygiene in South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and Africa. Synthesizes lessons learned, including: know the focus groups, ensure opportunities for change, and enable and motivate good hygiene practice.

Assessing Sanitation Service Levels, 2nd Edition

July 1, 2011

This working paper sets out a common framework to analyze and compare sanitation cost data across countries with different service delivery standards (i.e. Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mozambique, India). It represents a fundamental shift away from the focus on capital investment costs, to the costs of sustainable sanitation services. In this second edition of the paper, indicators found to be more useful than others have been added. Appendices A & B contain tentative outline ladders for solid waste and for greywater.

Adaptation of WASH Services Delivery to Climate Change and Other Sources of Risk and Uncertainty

July 1, 2011

This report urges WASH sector practitioners to take more seriously the threat of climate change and the consequences it could have on their work. By considering climate change within a risk and uncertainty framework, the field can use the multitude of approaches laid out here to adequately protect itself against a range of direct and indirect impacts. Eleven methods and tools for this specific type of risk management are described, including practical advice on how to implement them successfully.

Landscaping and Review of Approaches and Technologies for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

September 1, 2006

This document is the principal report produced by the consortium as part of a review commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and contains the main findings of a landscaping exercise, including a mapping of the water, sanitation and hygiene sector and the identification of approaches and technologies that have the potential to be actionable at scale, providing sustainable services. It should be read in conjunction with the two other documents: Landscaping of Approaches and Landscaping of Technologies. The first provides an overview and mapping of approaches to the delivery of water, sanitation and hygiene services. The second provides an overview of technologies that have been employed in the delivery of water, sanitation and hygiene services.