Clear all

3 results found

reorder grid_view

Benefit-Cost Analysis of Community-Led  Total Sanitation: Incorporating Results from  Recent Evaluations

January 1, 2019

We analyze the costs and benefits of "Community-Led Total Sanitation" (CLTS), a sanitation intervention that relies on community-level behavioral change, in a hypothetical rural region in Sub-Saharan Africa with 200 villages and 100,000 people. The analysis incorporates data on the effectiveness of CLTS from recent randomized control trials (RCTs) and other evaluations. We value reduced mortality benefits by adjusting estimates for the value of statistical life (VSL) from high income countries to reflect incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Reduced morbidity benefits are calculated using a cost of illness (COI) approach based on recent studies quantifying the cost of diarrheal disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. Time savings from owning a latrine are valued using estimates for the shadow value of time based on a proportion of the average local wage. Costs include the cost of intervention implementation and management, households' time costs for participating in the community behavioral change activities, and the cost of constructing latrines. We estimate the net benefits of this intervention both with and without the inclusion of a positive health externality, which is the additional reduction in diarrhea for an individual when a sufficient proportion of other individuals in the community construct and use latrines and thereby decrease the overall load of waterborne pathogens and fecal bacteria in the environment. We examine the sensitivity of the results to changes in the effectiveness of the CLTS intervention. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation is used to examine the sensitivity of the results to changes in all of the parameters in the benefit-cost model. We find that CLTS interventions would pass a benefit-cost test in many situations, but that benefit-cost metrics are not as favorable as many previous studies suggest. The model results are sensitive to baseline conditions, including the income level used to calculate the VSL, the discount rate, and the time spent traveling to defecation sites. We conclude that many communities will have economic investment opportunities that are more attractive than CLTS, and recommend careful economic analysis of CLTS in specific locations. 

Pathway to Successful Young Adulthood

June 1, 2007

The Pathway to Successful Young Adulthood assembles a wealth of findings from research, practice, theory, and policy about what it takes to improve the lives of children, youth and families, particularly those living in tough neighborhoods. By laying out a comprehensive, coherent array of actions, the Pathway informs efforts to improve community conditions within supportive policy and funding contexts. The Pathways framework does not promote a single formula or program. Rather, our emphasis is on acting strategically across disciplines, systems, and jurisdictions to increase the number of young people who make a successful transition to young adulthood. The Pathway provides a starting point to guide choices made by community coalitions, services providers, researchers, funders, and policymakers to achieve desired outcomes for young people and their families.

African American Men Survey

June 1, 2006

A comprehensive survey looking at how African-American men view their lives in the United States and their outlook for the future. The survey gauges the views and experiences of African-American men on marriage and family, education, careers and health, among other issues, and includes comparisons to the views and experiences of African-American women and white men and women. The African-American Men Survey is the 15th survey in a series generated under a three-way partnership between The Washington Post, the Kaiser Family Foundation and Harvard University. The three organizations work together to pick the survey topics, design the survey instruments and analyze the results. The survey's findings were published in the June 4, 2006, edition of The Washington Post. This survey was conducted by telephone from March 20 to April 29, 2006, among 2,864 randomly selected adults nationwide, including: 1,328 black men; 507 black women; 437 white men and 495 white women. Results for total respondents have been weighted so that black respondents are represented in proportion to their actual share of the population. Margin of sampling error is plus or minus 3 percentage points for results based on all respondents or black men, 5 percentage points for black women and 6 percentage points for white men or women. Hispanics and Asians were interviewed along with white and black respondents, but because of the relative size of those populations, there were not enough respondents to break out separately. The complete survey results and detailed methodology description are available in the toplines document.