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On Nigeria Big Bet: 2019 Evaluation Report

February 28, 2020

Since 2015, the MacArthur Foundation's On Nigeria strategy has sought to reduce corruption by supporting Nigerian-led efforts that strengthen accountability, transparency, and participation. Its theory of change builds on Jonathan Fox's "sandwich theory," which leverages the interplay between a push from below, by which citizens demand change ("voice"), and a squeeze from above to encourage public and private institutions to develop and enforce laws and regulations ("teeth").As of January 2020, the On Nigeria strategy has made 138 grants (totaling $66.8 million) that are a proving ground to develop and test a range of tactics and entry points for addressing corruption. Corruption is complex and ever-evolving, and progress toward the goal of reducing it will most certainly not be linear nor simple. Thus, On Nigeria reflects a multilayered strategy, comprising five areas of targeted programming, or modules—the Home Grown School Feeding (HGSF) Program, the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) Intervention Fund, Electricity Distribution, Criminal Justice, and Media and Journalism; and three cross-cutting areas—behavior and social norm change, civil society pressure for government accountability, and election-related efforts.The goal of this paper is to provide the latest information from the ongoing evaluation of On Nigeria, facilitate learning, and serve as one input to determine the next stage of programming. The evidence presented explores the strategy's progress to date, the validity of its theory of change, and status of windows of opportunity in the strategy's landscape.

Big Bet On Nigeria: 2018 Synthesis Report

July 12, 2019

Since 2015, the MacArthur Foundation's Big Bet On Nigeria is investing in efforts to reduce corruption in Nigeria by supporting Nigerian-led endeavors that strengthen transparency, accountability, and participation. Corruption, impunity, and lack of accountability in Nigeria have far-reaching impacts on access to and quality of public services, the well-being of Nigerians, and overall development. The On Nigeria strategy builds on Jonathan Fox's "sandwich" theory,1 which recognizes the importance of the combination of a push from below and a squeeze from above to effect change and sustain momentum. The push from below is the "voice"— representing citizens' actions to demand change and develop local solutions to corruption, while the squeeze from above is the "teeth"—representing the efforts of government and other high-level actors to develop and enforce laws and regulations, using incentives to discourage corruption and sanctions to punish it. The On Nigeria theory of change harnesses the "voice" of Nigerian citizens and the "teeth" of Nigerian public and private institutions, and combined with capacity building and collaboration, intends to address the problem of corruption in Nigeria.The On Nigeria evaluation and learning framework seeks to answer three overarching evaluation questions: (1) How is the MacArthur Foundation's strategy contributing to changing transparency and accountability of government and private-sector actors? (2) How is the MacArthur Foundation's strategy contributing to changing social norms and citizens' behaviors related to corruption? and (3) What kinds of adaptation or changes are needed in the theory of change and/or strategy to achieve better results? The framework is designed to provide specific information related to On Nigeria's landscape, outcomes, impacts, and feedback on the strategy to assess progress and adapt the strategy as needed.

Maternal Health Accountability-related Grants in Nigeria: Midline Evaluation Report

February 26, 2016

Since 2013, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation funds a portfolio of seven 3-year grants in Nigeria focused on government accountability to maternal and reproductive health, focusing on four accountability strategies – budget analysis, community mobilization, legal approaches, and maternal death audits. The portfolio spans federal, state, and local levels; 12 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), and five geopolitical zones. The Foundation prioritized a learning-focused evaluation process for this portfolio, and commissioned EnCompass LLC to refine the portfolio's theory of change, conduct baseline and midline assessments, and build grantee organizations' capacity to monitor their grants. This midline evaluation report assesses progress along the portfolio theory of change to identify what grantees should do more of, less of, or differently in the remaining year of their grants to ensure grant and portfolio effectiveness.

Population and Reproductive Health Accountability-related Grants in Nigeria

November 17, 2014

The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation funds a portfolio of seven 3-year grants in Nigeria focused on government accountability to maternal and reproductive health. Awarded in 2013, the portfolio focuses on four accountability strategies–budget analysis, community mobilization, legal approaches, and maternal death audits–spans three government levels (federal, state, local), 12 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), and five geopolitical zones.As part of a series of evaluative activities for this portfolio, the Foundation commissioned EnCompass LLC to refine the portfolio theory of change, conduct a baseline, and build grantee capacity to monitor their grants. The Foundation is prioritizing a learning-focused evaluation over the life of the grants that illuminates aspects of the portfolio strategy that are working well and could be improved to strengthen maternal health accountability in Nigeria. This report provides landscape metrics through the lens of the four accountability strategies that will be used to assess progress and results at midline and endline, and inform the grant portfolio going forward.