Clear all

21 results found

reorder grid_view

Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010

November 6, 2015

BackgroundViolent death is a serious problem in the United States. Previous research showing US rates of violent death compared with other high-income countries used data that are more than a decade old.MethodsWe examined 2010 mortality data obtained from the World Health Organization for populous, high-income countries (n = 23). Death rates per 100,000 population were calculated for each country and for the aggregation of all non-US countries overall and by age and sex. Tests of significance were performed using Poisson and negative binomial regressions.ResultsUS homicide rates were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher. For 15- to 24-year-olds, the gun homicide rate in the United States was 49.0 times higher. Firearm-related suicide rates were 8.0 times higher in the United States, but the overall suicide rates were average. Unintentional firearm deaths were 6.2 times higher in the United States. The overall firearm death rate in the United States from all causes was 10.0 times higher. Ninety percent of women, 91% of children aged to 14 years, 92% of youth aged 15 to 24 years, and 82% of all people killed by firearms were from the United States.ConclusionsThe United States has an enormous firearm problem compared with other high-income countries, with higher rates of homicide and firearm-related suicide. Compared with 2003 estimates, the US firearm death rate remains unchanged while firearm death rates in other countries decreased. Thus, the already high relative rates of firearm homicide, firearm suicide, and unintentional firearm death in the United States compared with other high-income countries increased between 2003 and 2010.

An Innovative Approach to Teaching Sustainable Design and Management

September 30, 2015

For many years the market leadership was driven by offering better price on more product functions and services. The world is currently shifting towards social responsibility thinking. This changes the market behaviour, and leads to more innovations, such as designing new product/service/system using re-usable parts, new electric motor concepts, or inventing new chemical production procedures generating less waste, and many more opportunities. This paper introduces a research valorisation activity that aims at developing a program of training and coaching to prepare students and industry partners to this emerging innovation wave. The most outstanding particularity of this program is that it combines management and engineering aspects of sustainability in a form that empowers trainees to deploy sustainable approaches in practice. The particular target group of design engineers get equipped with fundamentally important sustainability knowledge enabling them to include sustainability considerations in their products and systems design. Eco-design is positioned as a key lever towards achieving sustainable product-service systems.

Industrial Product Service System: A Case Study From the Agriculture Sector

July 2, 2015

Recent research shows that manufacturers' contribution to sustainable development can be improved by adopting a product service system (PSS). It is argued in this paper that such non-traditional business strategy is a crucial decision to the enterprise. Metrics need to be identified at different levels: industry, enterprise, and product. The objective of this research is to identify PSS metrics for agriculture industry. PESTEL analysis is carried out to determine these metrics. A case study of a grain spreader is used to derive the appropriate metrics. Decision model is developed and its can be implemented by the PSS partners.

Submarine Canyons as Coral and Sponge Habitat on the Eastern Bering Sea Slope

June 24, 2015

Submarine canyons have been shown to positively influence pelagic and benthic biodiversity and ecosystem function. In the eastern Bering Sea, several immense canyons lie under the highly productive "green belt" along the continental slope. Two of these, Pribilof and Zhemchug canyons, are the focus of current conservation interest. We used a maximum entropy modeling approach to evaluate the importance of these two canyons, as well as canyons in general, as habitat for gorgonian (alcyonacean) corals, pennatulacean corals, and sponges, in an area comprising most of the eastern Bering Sea slope and outer shelf. These invertebrates create physical structure that is a preferred habitat for many mobile species, including commercially important fish and invertebrates. We show that Pribilof canyon is a hotspot of structure-forming invertebrate habitat, containing over 50% of estimated high-quality gorgonian habitat and 45% of sponge habitat, despite making up only 1.7% of the total study area. The amount of quality habitat for gorgonians and sponges varied in other canyons, but canyons overall contained more high-quality habitat for structure-forming invertebrates compared to other slope areas. Bottom trawling effort was not well correlated with habitat quality for structure-forming invertebrates, and bottom-contact fishing effort in general, including longlining and trawling, was not particularly concentrated in the canyons examined. These results suggest that if conserving gorgonian coral habitat is a management goal, canyons, particularly Pribilof Canyon, may be a prime location to do this without excessive impact on fisheries.

Territory Based Industrial Product-Service System Design

May 14, 2015

The research field of Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2) is not fully mature and there is a need to expand research directions to improve design models. Despite the current IPS2's potential as a business model for a more sustainable production and consumption system, a generic model at global level does not necessarily brings improvement in sustainability. One way of giving a more accurate meaning to sustainability is the territorial understanding of the term. Thus, shifting design level from global to regional or local levels could interpret sustainability more articulate, current, and pragmatic. The present paper discusses territorialisation as a new approach for supporting the design of Industrial Product–Service Systems. To respond to such a need, designers need to access geographical information that able them to integrate territorial specifications in a proper way. In such a context, ontology could play a relevant role to analyse and discover the relation of geographical information system (GIS) in the life cycle of a product and the related service networks. Improvement in sustainability could be a result of this integration. The focus of this paper is just on environmental pillar.

Leveraging the Sustainability Potential of Mass Customization Through Product Service Systems in the Consumer Electronics Industry

May 14, 2015

Companies experience an increasing importance for implementing sustainability concerns into their processes and product offerings. In the consumer electronics industry, traditional manufacturing-focused initiatives to minimize the environmental impacts of products are currently still far from satisfactory. The European research project SMC-Excel aims at enhancing the ecological sustainability in the consumer electronics industry through the integration of new business models based on the ideas and concepts of mass customization. In this paper, first insights of the project revealed during a Business Model Innovation workshop are presented. The main hypothesis derived in this workshop – the suitability of product service systems as a lever for the sustainability potential of mass customization– is discussed with the help of an analysis of the state-of-the-art literature on product service systems and mass customization. The paper concludes that the combination of mass customization patterns and product service system patterns carries a significant potential to foster the environmental sustainability of the full business model, but that this potential is highly context dependent. The insights of this paper set up the basis for further empiric research in the consumer electronics industry.

Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Different IPSS Deployment Scenarios for the Light Commercial Vehicle Industry

May 14, 2015

IPSS are popular in different fields of transport, mainly for personal use (car-sharing, bike-sharing). Their usage in urban goods transport is not still generalized but those systems present a good potential. This paper proposed to assess and analyze four different scenarios for urban goods transport to compare IPSS configurations to a business as usual situation, in terms of environmental impacts. Those impacts will be estimated via a life cycle analysis (LCA) method. First, the four scenarios are presented. The first scenario is the reference one, i.e. the business as usual situation. The other three scenarios represent possible IPSS configuration, i.e. a vehicle leasing system, a vehicle sharing system and an urban consolidation system. Second, the methodology for scenario assessment using LCA is described, and the main proposed indicators defined. Third, the main results of the scenario assessment are presented, analyzed and discussed. Finally, future researches are proposed.

Decision Support for Environmental-friendly Vehicle Relocations in Free- Floating Car Sharing Systems: The Case of Car2go

May 14, 2015

Current market figures from Europe seem to indicate that recently introduced free-floating car sharing (FFCS) systems can be a breakthrough for the car sharing idea. Regardless of their success, FFCS systems face significant regional demand fluctuations, raising the need for vehicle relocations with novel requirements for the product–service system (PSS). This study aims to introduce an integrated decision support approach for cost and emission efficient vehicle relocation in FFCS based on real-world data from car2go. The proposed approach appears to be effective and have a significant potential to reduce costs and related emissions.

Review Of The Modelling Approaches For Availability Contracts In The Military Context

May 1, 2015

The defence context more recently has been experiencing a significant shift towards servitization. As competition has increased, commercial strategies are increasingly moving towards providing through-life solutions for complex engineering products such as submarines. Within such a context value for money is an essential driver in a life cycle sense for selecting a bid. The defence sector has largely been affected by this change in the business environment. Industrial Product Service System (IPS2) is a model of providing services that satisfy industrial customers and aims to reduce lifecycle impacts of products and services through product servicing, remanufacturing and recycling. This approach has proved to be an effective solution to enhance the services support in military projects. IPS2 offers client value by responding more efficiently to the client demands with reduced prices; it is delivered in the form of contracting approaches between Ministry of Defence (MoD) and industry; these contracts can differ in several aspects as risk sharing, application level, ownership policy and supportability specifications vary. This research focuses on Contracting for Availability (CfA), which is a particular approach of IPS2.The paper aims to present the review of literature in designing support strategies for CfA, identifying the good practices and challenges, and to propose a systematic approach to fill the industrial and academic gap towards an optimization of the current modelling process. This work starts by presenting a literature review in IPS2; it then moves into the optimization processes, describing how contractors currently design a long term service support contract in the military context with better value for money and high level of system readiness. The key cost and performance drivers are identified and a framework is presented to enhance the design process of CfA. The methodology of the paper relies on literature. This research aims to extend the work of several authors in predicting the cost of services in the military contracts.

Sources of Guns to Dangerous People: What We Learn By Asking Them

April 30, 2015

Gun violence exacts a lethal toll on public health. This paper focuses on reducing access to firearms by dangerous offenders, contributing original empirical data on the gun transactions that arm offenders in Chicago. Conducted in the fall of 2013, analysis of an open-ended survey of 99 inmates of Cook County Jail focuses on a subset of violence-prone individuals with the goal of improving law enforcement actions. Among our principal findings:Our respondents (adult offenders living in Chicago or nearby) obtain most of their guns from their social network of personal connections. Rarely is the proximate source either direct purchase from a gun store, or theft.Only about 60% of guns in the possession of respondents were obtained by purchase or trade. Other common arrangements include sharing guns and holding guns for others.About one in seven respondents report selling guns, but in only a few cases as a regular source of income.Gangs continue to play some role in Chicago in organizing gun buys and in distributing guns to members as needed.The Chicago Police Department has a considerable effect on the workings of the underground gun market through deterrence. Transactions with strangers and less-trusted associates are limited by concerns over arrest risk (if the buyer should happen to be an undercover officer or a snitch), and about being caught with a "dirty" gun (one that has been fired in a crime).

Product-Service Systems as a Promising Approach to Sustainability: Exploring the Sustainable Aspects of a PSS in Brazil

January 1, 2015

Product-Service Systems (PSS) represent a business proposition with potential to provide a wide range of economic, environmental, and social benefits, allowing achieving the sustainability. However, PSS does not necessarily lead to sustainable solutions and this potential must be assessed in each case. In this sense, the aim of this paper is to investigate sustainable aspects of a "result oriented PSS" (a reverse osmosis water filter system) available in Brazil and compares it with the conventional product, the bottled water. Some aspects from the literature, mentioned as important in each sustainability dimension, were selected to analyze the PSS under study. A qualitative analysis was performed and demonstrates that in comparison with bottled water, the water filter PSS is competitive, satisfy customer needs, and has a relatively lower environmental impact. However, besides conceiving sustainable solutions, is necessary to identify which factors drive the implementation and diffusion of PSS. Some findings of this study suggest that the effects caused by unexpected consumer behavior and incorrect PSS application may compromise PSS sustainable performance during operational phase. An analysis of these effects during transition process is essential to successful sustainable strategies. The study aimed to contribute to the PSS empirical knowledge and to assist building a theoretical basis regarding PSS and sustainability.

Product-Service-Systems for Heavy-Duty Vehicles - an Accessible Solution to Material Efficiency Improvements?

January 1, 2015

Previous research has investigated transitions of individual firms to PSS business. It has identified barriers and enablers and specified organizational capabilities needed. However, the transition to PSS has seldom been approached from a product-chain perspective. In addition, previous research has indicated the need for more assessments of environmental gains related to PSSs. This study aims at contributing to these perceived knowledge gaps by means of a case study. Questions posed include: Does the study's case company and one of its suppliers have the capabilities needed to adopt a PSS business model? and Could a PSS really contribute to material efficiency in their product-chain?