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Reducing Structural Barriers to School and Work for People with Juvenile Records: Policy Solution Toolkit

March 29, 2021

This toolkit identifies five key areas where improvements to state policy can have the greatest impact on education and employment opportunities for people with juvenile records:Statutory and Regulatory BarriersPost-Secondary Admissions and Employment ApplicationsRecord ConfidentialityRecord ClearanceCommunication of Rights and BarriersPolicymakers, state leaders, advocates, and others can use the accompanying resources to evaluate their current policies in each of these areas and guide statutory reforms to limit education and employment barriers for people with juvenile records.

Reducing Structural Barriers to School and Work for People with Juvenile Records

March 29, 2021

This report explores how barriers to education and employment in 12 states are affecting people with juvenile justice system involvement. It is a first-of-its-kind analysis from The Council of State Governments Justice Center, with financial support from the Annie E. Casey Foundation.

The School Discipline Consensus Report: Strategies from the Field to Keep Students Engaged in School and Out of the Juvenile Justice System

July 23, 2014

Research and data on school discipline practices are clear: millions of students are being removed from their classrooms each year, mostly in middle and high schools, and overwhelmingly for minor misconduct. When suspended, these students are at a significantly higher risk of falling behind academically, dropping out of school and coming into contact with the juvenile justice system. A disproportionately large percentage of disciplined students are youth of color, students with disabilities, and youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT).There is no question that when students commit serious offenses or pose a threat to school safety they may need to be removed from the campus or arrested. Such incidents, however, are relatively rare, and school typically remains the safest place a young person can be during the day. In schools with high rates of suspension for minor offenses, however, students and teachers often feel they are not safe or supported in their learning environment. Trailblazing student and parent groups, advocacy organizations, researchers, professional associations and school districts have raised the visibility of exclusionary discipline practices across the nation. In response, individual schools, districts, and state education systems have implemented research-based approaches to address student misbehavior that hold youth accountable address victims' needs, and effectively improve both student conduct and adult responses These approaches also help keep students engaged in classrooms and out of courtrooms The federal government has also put a spotlight on these issues. As part of the Supportive School Discipline Initiative, the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice issued joint guidance in January 2014 to assist public elementary and secondary schools in meeting their obligations under federal law to administer student discipline without discriminating on the basis of race, color or national origin. The School Discipline Consensus Report builds on this foundation and breaks new ground by integrating some of the best thinking and innovative strategies from the fields of education, health law enforcement, and juvenile justice. Leaders in these diverse systems agree that local and state governments must not only help schools reduce the number of students suspended, expelled and arrested, but must also provide conditions for learning wherein all students feel safe, welcome, and supported. The central thesis of this comprehensive report is that achieving these objectives requires the combination of a positive school climate, tiered levels of behavioral interventions, and a partnership between education, police, and court officials that is dedicated to preventing youth arrests or referrals to the juvenile justice system for minor school-based offenses.

The Impact of Probation and Parole Populations on Arrests in Four California Cities

January 22, 2013

On January 22, 2013 the Council of State Governments Justice Center released The Impact of Probation and Parole Populations on Arrests in Four California Cities. The unprecedented study answers one question that to date has been a matter of speculation among law enforcement and corrections officials everywhere: to what extent do people on parole and probation contribute to overall crime rates?The Chiefs of the Los Angeles, Redlands, Sacramento, and San Francisco Police Departments commissioned the analysis in 2010. Collecting and analyzing the data required an extraordinary effort spanning 11 independent agencies, including four local police jurisdictions, county law enforcement and probation agencies, two county sheriffs' departments and the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR). Researchers at the CSG Justice Center collected and matched more than 2.5 million arrest, parole, and probation records generated between January 1, 2008 and June 11, 2011.Among the most notable findings in these four jurisdictions:The majority of all adult felony and misdemeanor arrests were of people who were not currently under supervision. People under supervision accounted for only 22 percent of total arrests.Whereas people under probation and parole supervision accounted for one out of every six arrests for violent crimes, they accounted for one out of every three drug arrests.During a 3.5 year period in which total arrests fell by 18 percent, the number of arrests involving individuals under parole supervision declined by 61 percent and by 26 percent for individuals under probation supervision.

Justice Reinvestment in Oklahoma: Analysis and Policy Framework

January 11, 2012

Summarizes findings from analyses of criminal justice, mental health, and substance abuse data and policy options for justice reinvestment, a data-driven strategy to contain corrections spending and reinvest part of the savings in improving public safety.

Breaking Schools' Rules: A Statewide Study on How School Discipline Relates to Students' Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement

July 19, 2011

Analyzes Texas public school students' rates of discretionary suspension and expulsion for disciplinary reasons and the effect on their chances of failing, dropping out, and becoming involved with the juvenile justice system by race/ethnicity and gender.