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Tackling Slippage

September 19, 2019

This issue of Frontiers of CLTS explores current thinking and practice on the topic of tackling slippage of open defecation free (ODF) status. It looks at how slippage is defined and identified, and at different patterns of slippage that are seen after ODF is declared. Although a considerable amount has been written on how to establish strong Community-Led Total sanitation (CLTS) programmes that prevent slippage from happening, this issue looks at how to reverse slippage that has already taken place. Note however, that at a certain level, strategies used to reverse slippage and those used in advance to set a programme up for success to prevent slippage occurring overlap.From the literature, there is little documented evidence on how slippage can be reversed; evidence and guidance tend to focus on prevention. This review begins to address this gap. Implementers are encouraged to use the proposed patterns of slippage framework and slippage factors section to understand the type and extent of slippage experienced, then use the examples in the section on tackling slippage to identify potential slippage responses.In addition to a review of current literature, in depth interviews were carried out with key informants at global, regional and country level. Key informants were selected purposively to identify experiences and innovations in tackling slippage from across the sector.Issue 14, September 2019

Frontiers 13: Support mechanisms to strengthen equality and non-discrimination (EQND) in rural sanitation (Part 2 of 2)

July 3, 2019

Achievement of adequate and equitable access to sanitation for all, and an end to open defecation, requires that special attention is given toward disadvantaged groups. It has become apparent that the benefits of conventional rural sanitation programming and service delivery are often not spread equally, and risk leaving disadvantaged groups behind. This issue of Frontiers of CLTS (the second in a two-part series) examines the potential of support mechanisms designed to help disadvantaged groups access and use hygienic toilets in driving more equitable rural sanitation outcomes. It covers the latest thinking on the opportunities and challenges of support mechanisms, and explores what works remains to be done.In this issue, we use a broad definition of 'support' for creating equitable outcomes. Although financial and physical subsidies often quickly come to mind, a broader practical understanding of support needs to encompass both 'hardware' mechanisms and 'software' approaches, as well as various combinations of the two (Myers et al. 2017; ISF-UTS and SNV 2018).

Rural Sanitation in Africa: Challenges, Good Practices and Ways Forward

January 31, 2019

In order to achieve universal safely managed sanitation across Africa by 2030 the scale and pace will need to increase drastically. As the African sanitation community reassemble for AfricaSan 5 we hope the opportunity is grasped to rejuvenate commitments to those who still lack the fundamental human right of access to sanitation and hygiene facilities.This edition of Frontiers of CLTS draws on the discussions held across two regional Africa events in 2018, highlighting the challenges faced by programme implementers (both government and non-government staff) at different levels in relation to the Ngor Commitments and the achievement of universal access to safely managed sanitation. A range of initiatives are presented that show promise in addressing these challenges, along with recommended priority actions.

Atelier régional sur l’assainissement rural en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre : Note d’apprentissage

October 1, 2018

Le CLTS Knowledge Hub, basé à l'Institute of Development Studies, WaterAid, le WSSCC et l'UNICEF ont co-organisé un atelier régional à Saly, au Sénégal, du 25 au 28 juin 2018, avec l'aide de l'AGETIP. L'événement a réuni les personnes impliquées dans la programmation de l'eau, l'assainissement et l'hygiène (EAH) en milieu rural dans 14 pays de la région (Bénin, Burkina Faso, Cameroun, Gambie, Ghana, Libéria, Mali, Mauritanie, Niger, Nigéria, République Démocratique du Congo (RDC), Sénégal, Tchad et Togo) aux côtés d'experts travaillant aux niveaux régional et mondial. Durant les quatre jours de l'atelier, les participants ont échangé leurs expériences, leurs innovations, les problèmes rencontrés, les recherches entreprises et ils ont recensé les manques de connaissances et discuter des moyens d'aller de l'avant dans le but d'améliorer les capacités et d'enrichir le savoir.Cette note d'apprentissage présente les problèmes communs identifiés dans la région ; elle résume certaines des discussions qui se sont tenues tout au long de la semaine, met en avant les pratiques prometteuses et considère les actions prioritaires pour aller de l'avant.

West and Central Africa Regional Rural Sanitation Workshop

September 17, 2018

The CLTS Knowledge Hub, based at the Institute of Development Studies, WaterAid, WSSCC and UNICEF co-convened a regional workshop in Saly, Senegal, 25th-28th June 2018 with support from AGETIP. The event brought together those engaged in rural WASH programming from 14 countries across the region (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Democratic Republic Congo (DRC), Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo) alongside experts working at regional and global levels. Over the course of four days participants shared latest experiences, innovations, challenges and research, mapped knowledge gaps and discussed ways forward with the aim of improving capacity and knowledge.This learning brief presents the common challenges identified across the region, summarises some of the discussions held, highlights some promising practices and considers priority actions moving forward.Headline recommendations from the brief include:Urgently advocate to increase domestic resource allocationCreate specific country-level strategies for reaching the 'last mile'Use of evidence on last mile demographics and practices to encourage inclusionAvoid rigid policies and practices and be less dogmatic about what approaches are usedUse area-wide approachesSystematise post-ODF interventionsIdentify, strengthen and promote local technological solutionsConduct formative research on the 'last mile', sustainable local solutions and long-term behaviour changeStrengthen knowledge management initiatives to better support the region, especially Francophone region.Collect, make publically available and respond to data

Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights: Engaging Men and Boys in Sanitation and Hygiene Programmes

August 16, 2018

Discussions of gender in sanitation and hygiene often focus on the roles, positions or impacts on women and girls. Such a focus is critical to improving the gendered outcomes in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), as women and girls bear the greatest burden of WASH work yet are often excluded from planning, delivery and monitoring community WASH activities as a result of having less power, resources, time and status than their male peers. However, current efforts to improve sanitation and change social norms may not always actively engage men and boys in the most effective way. There is more to learn about how the roles men and boys actually play out in improving use of safe sanitation and improved hygiene practices and – if necessary – how the engagement strategies can be modified to make efforts more successful.This issue of Frontiers of CLTS shares and builds on the learning from a desk study that explores examples of men's and boys' behaviours and gender roles in sanitation and hygiene. Of particular interest is the extent to which the engagement of men and boys in S&H processes is leading to sustainable and transformative change in households and communities and reducing gendered inequality.The review focuses on men and boys: how to engage them (or not), how to mobilise them as allies in the transformation of S&H outcomes and the problems they contribute to and experience.

Atelier régional sur l’assainissement rural en Afrique australe et orientale

June 14, 2018

La CLTS Knowledge Hub, basée à l'Institute of Development Studies, a organisé un atelier régional à Arusha en Tanzanie, du 16 au 20 avril 2018 avec l'aide de la SNV Tanzanie. L'événement a réuni les personnes impliquées dans la programmation de l'EAH en milieu rural dans huit pays de la région (Burundi, Érythrée, Éthiopie, Kenya, Malawi, Ouganda, Tanzanie et Zambie) aux côtés d'experts travaillant aux niveaux régional et mondial. Durant les cinq jours de l'atelier, les participants ont échangé leurs expériences, les innovations, les problèmes rencontrés et les acquis et ils ont recensé les manques de connaissances dans le but d'améliorer les capacités et l'apprentissage futur et d'arriver à un consensus sur la façon d'aller de l'avant. Par ailleurs, la SNV Tanzanie a facilité une visite d'étude dans ses zones du projet Assainissement durable et Hygiène pour Tous (SSH4A) dans les districts de Babati et Karatu.Cette note d'apprentissage présente les problèmes les plus communs et les obstacles à la réalisation de l'Objectif de développement durable (ODD) 6.2 que les participants à l'atelier ont identifiés dans toute la région. Elle résume les discussions qui se sont tenues toute la semaine, met en avant les pratiques prometteuses et considère des actions prioritaires pour aller de l'avant.

East and Southern Africa Regional Rural Sanitation Workshop

May 24, 2018

The CLTS Knowledge Hub, based at the Institute of Development Studies, convened a regional workshop in Arusha, Tanzania, 16-20 April 2018 with support from SNV Tanzania. The event brought together those engaged in rural WASH programming from eight countries across the region (Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia) alongside experts working at regional and global levels. Over the course of five days participants shared experiences, innovations, challenges and learning, and mapped gaps in knowledge with the aim of improving capacity and future learning, and building consensus on the way forward. SNV Tanzania also facilitated a field visit to its Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All (SSH4A) project areas in Babati and Karatu districts.This learning brief presents the common challenges and barriers to achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.2 that the workshop participants identified across the region. It summarises discussions held across the week, highlights promising practices and considers priority actions moving forward.

Equality and Non-discrimination (EQND) in Sanitation Programmes at Scale (Part 1)

September 3, 2017

A well-facilitated Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) programme that pro-actively considers and involves people who might be disadvantaged has been shown to have many benefits. A lack of this can and will often have negative impacts and make programmes and ODF unsustainable.This issue of Frontiers of CLTS looks at who should be considered potentially disadvantaged, how they can effectively participate and what may be needed to address diverse needs in order to make processes and outcomes sustainable and inclusive. Using a range of examples from GSF programmes that were part of a recent study on Equality and Non-Discrimination, it explores the challenges that may occur and concludes with suggested good practices that will strengthen the processes to the benefit of all.