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Freedom and Accountability: A Transatlantic Framework for Moderating Speech Online

June 16, 2020

The Transatlantic High Level Working Group on Content Moderation Online and Freedom of Expression was formed to identify and encourage adoption of scalable solutions to reduce hate speech, violent extremism, and viral deception online, while protecting freedom of expression and a vibrant global internet. The TWG comprises 28 political leaders, lawyers, academics, representatives of civil society organizations and tech companies, journalists and think tanks from Europe and North America. We reviewed current legislative initiatives to extract best practices, and make concrete and actionable recommendations. The final report reflects views expressed during our discussions and charts a path forward. We did not seek unanimity on every conclusion or recommendation, recognizing that diverse perspectives could not always be reconciled.

Presidential Debates: What’s Behind the Numbers?

September 19, 2016

Because they attract large audiences, generate interest in the campaign, help voters understand their choices in the upcoming election, forecast governance, increase the likelihood that voters will cast a vote for the preferred candidate rather than against the opponent, moderate some of the campaigns' tendencies to exaggerate and, in a close contest, may affect an election's outcome, presidential debates have become a centerpiece of presidential general elections in the United States.BackgroundAlthough audience data have tracked trends in presidential general election debate viewership over the years, they often fail to reveal how much and how many of the debates people actually watch. More importantly, these figures don't provide insight into why people do or do not watch the debates. Using multiple research methods, this Annenberg Public Policy Center white paper draws on detailed Nielsen viewership data, a national survey, and a set of focus groups with debate viewers to answer these questions.

Democratizing The Debates: A Report of the Annenberg Working Group on Presidential Campaign Debate Reform

June 19, 2015

The Annenberg Debate Reform Working Group was created by the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania to explore ways to increase the value and viewership of presidential general election debates, taking into account the ways in which the rise of early voting, the advent of social media, establishment of new media networks, changes in campaign finance, and the increase in the number of independent voters have altered the electoral environment. It would be difficult to overstate the significance of these changes. In a 48-page report released in advance of the 2016 election season, an Annenberg Public Policy Center working group has laid out a series of suggestions to improve presidential debates.The goal? To improve the quality and relevance of the debates, and try to get "more people to watch a debate, to watch more of a debate, to watch more debates, to watch more of more debates," says Kathleen Hall Jamieson, who organized the group. Greater than 60 percent of the voting age population watched a presidential debate on TV in 1960. In 2012, the most-viewed presidential debate had just 28 percent of the electorate tuning in.