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Total Turmoil: Unveiling South Korea's Stake in Mozambique's Climate and Humanitarian Crisis

January 29, 2024

Mozambique hosts an extensive offshore gas field, which has garnered worldwide interest for commercial exploitation. There are four major Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) projects currently in development in the Rovuma Basin within Cabo Delgado province, northern Mozambique, making it the most extensive gas expansion initiative in Africa. In Area 1, the French energy company TotalEnergies is overseeing the development of the Mozambique LNG project. In Area 4, the US energy corporation ExxonMobil and the Italian energy company Eni are managing the Coral Sul FLNG project, the Coral Norte FLNG project, and the Rovuma LNG project.Mozambique hosts an extensive offshore gas field, which has garnered worldwide interest for commercial exploitation. There are four major Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) projects currently in development in the Rovuma Basin within Cabo Delgado province, northern Mozambique, making it the most extensive gas expansion initiative in Africa. In Area 1, the French energy company TotalEnergies is overseeing the development of the Mozambique LNG project. In Area 4, the US energy corporation ExxonMobil and the Italian energy company Eni are managing the Coral Sul FLNG project, the Coral Norte FLNG project, and the Rovuma LNG project.Solutions For our Climate (SFOC) has identified the significant participation of South Korean corporations in Mozambique's LNG projects, as they play pivotal roles throughout the entire value chain of the Mozambique LNG business. With a 10% stake in the Area 4 block, Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) has been making substantial investments in project exploration and development. Notably, major Korean shipbuilders are actively involved in Area 1 and Area 4 projects. Samsung Heavy Industries is expected to provide offshore LNG production vessels for two of the four Mozambique gas field projects. Meanwhile, three Korean shipbuilders anticipate supplying a total of 23 LNG carriers for transporting the produced LNG volume from Rovuma Basin. Six LNG carriers have already been constructed and are in use to transport LNG volumes from the Area 4 Coral Sul field, while 17 fleets for the Area 1 Mozambique LNG project await the final contract to be signed. Consequently, South Korean public financiers have become involved in the Mozambique gas projects, providing a total of USD 3.22 billion financial support to Korean companies engaged in these initiatives.

Loss and damage: Challenges and opportunities for city leadership (Spanish Version)

December 21, 2023

A partir de la bibliografía existente y de las experiencias vividas en las ciudades miembros del C40, este informe complementa la creciente base de datos sobre la movilización de las fuentes de financición sobre pérdidas y daños por parte de gobiernos nacionales, donantes privados y agentes multilaterales de desarrollo. Se hace, principalmente, presentando la escala urbana de los impactos climáticos y ejemplos clave de las acciones y el liderazgo de las C40 cities. Se centra tanto en las pérdidas económicas como en las no económicas, así como en los fenómenos meteorológicos extremos de evolución lenta y rápida. Basándose en el creciente reconocimiento de las pérdidas y daños relacionados con el clima y en los llamados a la acción a nivel local, este informe tiene como objetivo crear una comprensión compartida de cómo se experimentan las pérdidas y los daños en las zonas urbanas, las soluciones existentes que los gobiernos locales están aplicando, y las lagunas y necesidades específicas que existen, con el fin de acceder a las fuentes de financiación dedicadas a las pérdidas y daños, entregadas a escala. Drawing from existing literature as well as lived experiences within C40 member cities, this report complements the growing evidence base around the mobilisation of loss and damage funding by national governments, private funders and multilateral development actors. It does this chiefly by presenting the urban scale of climate impacts and key examples from the actions and leadership of C40 cities. It focuses on both economic and non-economic losses, and on both slower- and rapid-onset extreme weather events. Drawing on growing recognition of climate-related loss and damage and calls for locally led action, this report aims to create a shared understanding of how loss and damage is experienced in urban areas, the existing solutions that local governments are implementing, and the specific gaps and needs that exist, in order to access dedicated loss and damage funding, delivered at scale. 

Loss and damage: Challenges and opportunities for city leadership (French Version)

December 21, 2023

S'appuyant sur la littérature existante ainsi que sur les expériences vécues dans les villes membres du C40, ce rapport vient compléter les données de plus en plus conséquentes concernant la mobilisation du financement des pertes et dommages par les gouvernements nationaux, les bailleurs de fonds privés et les acteurs du développement multilatéral. Il le fait principalement en présentant l'échelle urbaine des impacts climatiques et en donnant des exemples clés d' actions et du leadership des villes du C40. Il porte à la fois sur les pertes économiques et non économiques, et sur les phénomènes météorologiques extrêmes, qu'ils soient rapides ou plus lents. S'appuyant sur la reconnaissance croissante des pertes et dommages liés au climat et sur les appels à une action locale, ce rapport vise à créer une compréhension commune de la manière dont les pertes et dommages sont vécus dans les zones urbaines, des solutions existantes que les gouvernements locaux mettent en œuvre, et des lacunes et besoins spécifiques qui existent, afin d'accéder à un financement spécifique pour les pertes et dommages, fourni à grande échelle. 

Loss and damage: Challenges and opportunities for city leadership (Arabic Version)

December 21, 2023

Drawing from existing literature as well as lived experiences within C40 member cities, this report complements the growing evidence base around the mobilisation of loss and damage funding by national governments, private funders and multilateral development actors. It does this chiefly by presenting the urban scale of climate impacts and key examples from the actions and leadership of C40 cities. It focuses on both economic and non-economic losses, and on both slower- and rapid-onset extreme weather events. Drawing on growing recognition of climate-related loss and damage and calls for locally led action, this report aims to create a shared understanding of how loss and damage is experienced in urban areas, the existing solutions that local governments are implementing, and the specific gaps and needs that exist, in order to access dedicated loss and damage funding, delivered at scale. 

Solidarity in Saving: Listening to Women's Needs During Crises

December 20, 2023

Women (in VSLAs) Respond is an ongoing exercise, conducted by CARE, listening to how women in Village Savings & Loan Associations (VSLAs) are affected by and responding to shocks and crises in their communities, including conflict, climate change, food insecurity, pandemics, and more. The best way to understand what is happening to crisis-affected populations is to listen to their voices and experiences. Between February and August 2023, CARE interviewed saving group members as part of the Women (in VSLA) Respond initiative. This brief represents quantitative data from Burundi, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Mali, Niger, and Vietnam. The survey included 3,822 (85% women) VSLA members.

The Costs of Inaction: Calculating climate change-related loss and damage from extreme weather in Small Island Developing States

December 1, 2023

Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have had considerable success in getting climate-induced loss and damage on to the international policy agenda, as evidenced by the decision at COP27 to create a specific Loss and Damage Fund. However, the hard task of harnessing adequate support to address loss and damage hinges on being able to calculate what constitutes 'loss' and 'damage', both retrospectively and prospectively. This paper contributes to that conversation. It presents estimates of the impacts of extreme weather events due to climate change in SIDS over the past 23 years and projections of expected loss and damage by the year 2050.Using information from extreme event attribution (EEA) analysis, this paper finds significant loss and damage attributable to climate change in SIDS: from 2000 to 2022, a total of 10,113 deaths associated with extreme weather events were recorded in SIDS, of which anthropogenic climate change was responsible for 38%. Annual economic losses of US$1.7 billion can be attributed to climate change, representing 0.8% of the collective gross domestic product (GDP) of SIDS every year. For small, undiversified SIDS economies, this is extremely significant. On average, SIDS suffer higher levels of loss and damage than non-SIDS across all income groups. For instance, SIDS experience five times more climate change-attributable deaths (per million of population) than non-SIDS in low- and lower middle-income countries.Collectively, floods and storms are projected to produce cumulative climate change-attributable loss and damage of $56 billion in SIDS under a 2°C warming scenario by 2050. This would represent 11% higher average annual loss and damage over the next 23 years (2023–2045) than over the past 23 years (2000–2022). These projections likely underestimate the potential loss and damage that may occur in SIDS, because of limited data and because indirect economic impacts (e.g. loss of GDP, loss of revenues) and loss and damage due to slow-onset events have not been included in the analysis.The paper offers recommendations to help inform the development of adequate financial mechanisms, including the Loss and Damage Fund, for coping with these seemingly inevitable impacts of climate change in SIDS. Firstly, mechanisms to address loss and damage need to focus on loss and damage under a 2°C+ scenario. Secondly, there needs to be a clearer articulation, and calculation, of the indirect costs of climate change, which could be significant. And finally, data gaps need to be filled as a matter of urgency, including through more attribution studies in SIDS and other highly vulnerable countries. 

Loss and damage: Challenges and opportunities for city leadership

December 1, 2023

Drawing from existing literature as well as lived experiences within C40 member cities, this report complements the growing evidence base around the mobilisation of loss and damage funding by national governments, private funders and multilateral development actors. It does this chiefly by presenting the urban scale of climate impacts and key examples from the actions and leadership of C40 cities. It focuses on both economic and non-economic losses, and on both slower- and rapid-onset extreme weather events. Drawing on growing recognition of climate-related loss and damage and calls for locally led action, this report aims to create a shared understanding of how loss and damage is experienced in urban areas, the existing solutions that local governments are implementing, and the specific gaps and needs that exist, in order to access dedicated loss and damage funding, delivered at scale. 

Inadequate and inequitable: water scarcity and displacement in Iraq

November 26, 2023

Iraq's climate is changing faster than people can adapt. With each passing summer, new records are logged: record high temperatures, record low water levels. Between May and October, the heat scorches all that is dead and sears everything that lives. During the day, the sun forces people inside; in the evening, the heat lingers in cities that feel like the inside of a hair dryer.All this is happening in a country rebuilding from 20 years of conflict; to 45 million people looking to find a way to move forward with their lives. While all in Iraq are affected, some face the summer with much less support than others. An estimated 1.2 million Iraqis are still displaced, in addition to the almost 300,000 Syrian refugees hosted in Federal and Kurdistan Region of Iraq. While some internally displaced people live in homes, most live in makeshift shelters, often in airless tents at the mercy of the extreme weather. Across the country, year after year, the heat compounds their suffering, threatens to undo painstaking gains in livelihoods and food security, and makes climate change impossible to ignore in policy and action around displacement. Starting in 2021, the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) has issued a yearly report on the impact of drought in Iraq across four broad themes: water security and governance, income and food insecurity, social tension, and drought and displacement. Increasingly, our analysis indicates that extreme weather is, among other things, negatively impacting crop yields, access and functionality of market systems, exacerbating social schisms, and precipitating risks of secondary displacement. Analysis by our partners reinforce many of these findings: the United Nations estimates upwards of 130,000 Iraqis have been displaced by effects of climate change; and Mercy Corps estimates up to 40 percent of arable land might be lost in the next few years in the southern parts of the country due to desertification.

Inadequate and inequitable: water scarcity and displacement in Iraq (Arabic Version)

November 26, 2023

 Iraq's climate is changing faster than people can adapt. With each passing summer, new records are logged: record high temperatures, record low water levels. Between May and October, the heat scorches all that is dead and sears everything that lives. During the day, the sun forces people inside; in the evening, the heat lingers in cities that feel like the inside of a hair dryer.All this is happening in a country rebuilding from 20 years of conflict; to 45 million people looking to find a way to move forward with their lives. While all in Iraq are affected, some face the summer with much less support than others. An estimated 1.2 million Iraqis are still displaced, in addition to the almost 300,000 Syrian refugees hosted in Federal and Kurdistan Region of Iraq. While some internally displaced people live in homes, most live in makeshift shelters, often in airless tents at the mercy of the extreme weather. Across the country, year after year, the heat compounds their suffering, threatens to undo painstaking gains in livelihoods and food security, and makes climate change impossible to ignore in policy and action around displacement. Starting in 2021, the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) has issued a yearly report on the impact of drought in Iraq across four broad themes: water security and governance, income and food insecurity, social tension, and drought and displacement. Increasingly, our analysis indicates that extreme weather is, among other things, negatively impacting crop yields, access and functionality of market systems, exacerbating social schisms, and precipitating risks of secondary displacement. Analysis by our partners reinforce many of these findings: the United Nations estimates upwards of 130,000 Iraqis have been displaced by effects of climate change; and Mercy Corps estimates up to 40 percent of arable land might be lost in the next few years in the southern parts of the country due to desertification.

Disasters and the rental housing community: Setting a research and policy agenda

October 5, 2023

The nation's system for managing disasters is broken. Hurricanes, wildfires, earthquakes, and related emergencies caused by increasingly severe and frequent effects from fossil-fuel-induced global climate change can have massive health and financial consequences for communities. Our current disaster management system relies on local, state, and—increasingly—federal resources to support disaster preparedness and mitigation efforts before a disaster; provide evacuation, safety, and relief during; and support rebuilding and recovery after. Yet gaps in public responses to disasters hold especially true for renters, rental properties, and rental housing stakeholders. Renter conditions—the availability, affordability, and quality of rental housing units throughout this timeframe—are a key indicator of climate and disaster vulnerability. And despite renters accounting for over one-third of U.S. households, funding and programming across all disaster stages still disproportionately serve single-family homeowners.There have been calls for "disaster justice" over the last decade, often as an offspring of environmental and housing activism. But equitable disaster processes, outputs, and outcomes have remained poorly defined. To ensure that renters' voices are at the center of any policy or evidence-building agendas, scholars and policy analysts affiliated with the Brookings Institution and Enterprise Community Partners—with generous support from the Walmart Foundation—developed an overview of the key challenges in practice, policy, and evidence on the subject of renters and the disaster continuum, from hazard relief and response through recovery to longer-term hazard mitigation and resilience. The team also hosted a full-day, invitation-only convening of local grassroots tenant organizations, rental housing providers, and regional housing advocates at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C. on July 20, 2023, to answer the question: How can tenants and landlords be better served in programs across the public disaster management system?We approach this challenge comprehensively, starting by including renters at the table. We center renters' perspectives, incorporating their lived experiences into the evidence base when making recommendations about policy that affects their lives. Drawing on this experience, along with additional research, we offer recommendations for tweaks and transformations to practices among local civic organizations, disaster and housing service providers, and responsible government agencies to center the renters who form a significant portion of their resident and survivor populations. These recommendations include: 1) universal renter protections; 2) the prioritization of low-income renters of all kinds in all disaster programs; and 3) requirements for state and local governments to enforce tenant protections and support tenants and rental housing in exchange for access to federal disaster funding. This document narrates the preliminary research and agenda-setting developed for the convening, describes the convening's multiple conversations, and outlines recommendations drawn from workshop participants for improving policy and research.

Resilience Evidence Forum (REF) 2023 Synthesis Report

September 18, 2023

The Resilience Evidence Forum (REF) 2023 Synthesis Report serves as a comprehensive guide to resilience-building methodologies and evidence.The report underscores the pivotal role of high-quality evidence both in mobilising the large-scale financing needed and informing and catalysing the policy changes essential for building resilience.The Report summarises key discussions held at the June 2023 Resilience Evidence Forum, co-hosted by USAID and the Global Resilience Partnership, which brought together more than 1,000 global stakeholders to evaluate the state of resilience evidence.

Housing, land and property in the context of climate change, disasters and displacement

July 10, 2023

This brief presents the Norwegian Refugee Council's knowledge and experience in addressing housing, land and property (HLP) issues associated with climate change, disasters and displacement, including those often aggravated by conflict. It is not a comprehensive catalogue of HLP issues, nor does it present the full breadth of NRC's operations. Rather, it reflects the organisation's experience in delivering information counselling and legal assistance (ICLA), shelter and settlements and other programmes, and draws on its role as lead and co-lead of inter-agency coordination. The brief documents examples of NRC's operations in Afghanistan, Iraq, Mozambique, Somalia and South Sudan, countries also identified for the work of the Special Adviser.