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The Economic Role of Paid Child Care in the U.S. Part 3: Economic Growth Modeling

May 26, 2022

This report is the third in a four-part series focused on the use of paid child care in the U.S. The report provides extensive empirical analysis on a group of factors that potentially underlie differences in paid child care usage across the states and over time. These factors were introduced and discussed in the first report in the series.Time series tests of both short- and long-run statistical causality are used to examine the empirical relationships between these factors and paid child care usage. The report then develops a model of long-run economic growth and uses it to examine the potential effects of increased maternal and female labor force participation on real income growth and paid child care usage.The results provide a helpful empirical view of the historical linkages between these factors and paid child care usage as well as the role of paid child care in economic growth. For policymakers, the results also inform the ongoing policy debate over the economic role of paid child care. 

The Economic Role of Paid Child Care in the U.S. Part 2: Labor Force Participation

May 19, 2022

This is the second report of a four-part series related to use of paid child care in the U.S. and the labor force participation of mothers. The first report focused on the use of paid child care, what percent of household income is spent on child care for those families who pay for it, and what characteristics are associated with families who pay for child care. This second report examines labor force participation in greater detail to better understand labor force attachment for mothers with children over time, as well as trends across gender, race, marital status, and women with and without children, to gain a better understanding of labor force trends in which mothers with children are a subset.The ability of many working parents to participate in the labor force is highly dependent upon access to paid child care. Paid care has historically been used by working parents for approximately 20% of children in the U.S. under the age of 15.The use of paid care is most closely associated with the labor force participation of mothers. Mothers traditionally perform most of the primary care duties for children, especially for younger children. Hence, the use of paid child care is closely tied to the decision of mothers to enter or exit the labor force. At the state level, the share of children in paid child care is highly correlated with the share of mothers participating in the labor force.This report examines both long- and short-run trends in U.S. labor force participation. The two primary measures of labor force participation are defined and discussed, and key trends are examined. Many of the key labor force trends examined are related to the role of women in the labor force, particularly women with children. The influence of sex, race, income, and marital status on the participation rate is also examined, along with the variation in participation rates across the states.

Partnering with Federal Agencies to Advance Racial Equity

May 12, 2022

Partnering with Federal Agencies to Advance Racial Equity is a report by Race Forward and PolicyLink  that describes the work that commenced in partnership with federal agency offices, considers observations and lessons learned along the way, and discusses efforts that must continue at the federal level to fully realize the intentions of the executive order and move this country toward a more racially just future.Race Forward and PolicyLink co-led a Racial Equity Governing Pilot Project with federal agencies in the fall and winter of 2021 and 2022. This report discusses critical elements of these partnership pilots and lessons to inform and support the longer term aspirations of the federal government to become actively antiracist. 

Expanding Equity Inclusion & Belonging Guidebook

May 1, 2022

As many corporate leaders know, inclusion and belonging are vital to company health and success. Creating workplaces where every employee can bring their whole selves to work leads to deeper levels of commitment and higher levels of innovation. A key question is: how can leaders and companies create a culture that embodies a feeling of inclusion and a sense of belonging for all employees? This guidebook, created as part of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation's Expanding Equity program, will support you on that journey through the following sections: 1. What is racial equity? 2. Putting the "I" in DE&I 3. Talking About Race (and Racism) in the Workplace 4. Moving Beyond Allyship to Sponsorship 5. Developing Champions for Racial Equity

The Quest For Equity and Quality Examining Provider Experiences and Participation in Texas Rising Star

April 1, 2022

Exposure to high-quality child care is the foundation for a child's academic and social-emotional success, especially for children from low-income families. Increasing access to subsidized child care is one of the many strategies used to provide affordable early education to children from low-income families. However, increasing access alone is not enough when it comes to early learning. Children need to be in high-quality care to reap the many benefits.One systematic way to measure and increase quality of child care programs is through a state's Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS). QRIS is a systematic framework used to measure, improve, and communicate the quality of early childhood education (ECE) providers across a range of indicators. In Texas, this system is called Texas Rising Star (TRS). TRS is only open to child care providers who accept families receiving subsidy child care assistance. While TRS offers incentives for participation including professional development and increased reimbursement rates, currently TRS reaches only a fraction of lowincome children and the providers. 

A Legal Aid Perspective on COVID-19

March 30, 2022

This inspiring report tells the story of the issues faced by low-income and marginalized people during the COVID-19 pandemic, and civil legal aid's role in addressing them. The knowledge presented is gleaned from strategic conversations, informational interviews, and organically through NLADA's work with civil legal aid, supported by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.

The Economic Role of Paid Child Care in the U.S.

February 10, 2022

One of the most fundamental roles played by child care is enabling parents to participate in the labor force. Most parents with young children are in the workforce. Among U.S. families with a child under age 5, 91% have a working parent. For married couple families, 98% have at least one working parent and 60% have both parents in the workforce. For families maintained by only one parent, 79% of mothers and 88% of fathers who head the household are employed. To support employment, parents choose from a broad range of child care options, either paid or unpaid. This report focuses on the role played by paid child care services. Paid care provides parents with a market-based alternative to in-home parental care and other forms of non-paid care.

The State of WIC: Investing in the Next Generation

February 2, 2022

The second State of WIC report – supported by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation – highlights the experience of WIC providers and participants throughout 2021. Effective program reforms, including the WIC benefit bump and remote WIC services, have upended longstanding trends and leave WIC better positioned to deliver quality nutrition support. This report documents the strong and growing evidence base for WIC's nutrition intervention and lays out a blueprint for how WIC can build healthier food environments by investing in the next generation.

Impacto multidimensional de la pandemia en las juventudes indígenas de Yucatán

January 28, 2022

Las juventudes son una de las poblaciones que se han visto y se verán más afectadas por los impactos a largo plazo de la pandemia, más aún para aquellas personas jóvenes que viven y/o son parte de comunidades que han sido históricamente excluidas, como los pueblos y comunidades indígenas. Cada día contamos con más evidencia sobre el impacto de la pandemia en las juventudes en México y en otros países del mundo. Sin embargo, todavía hay poca información sobre el impacto en juventudes indígenas. Por este motivo, el objetivo del presente estudio es analizar el impacto de la pandemia en múltiples dimensiones de la vida de juventudes indígenas que viven en seis municipios localizados en Yucatán y mapear las decisiones y medidas relacionadas con juventudes adoptadas por el gobierno del estado de Yucatán en el contexto de la emergencia sanitaria por COVID-19 y de la reactivación económica, entre enero y junio 2021. Esta información es relevante para orientar y redirigir medidas y acciones de instituciones y personas tomadoras de decisiones en la región, así como para el diseño de nuevas estrategias y políticas públicas basadas en evidencia que se enfoquen a reducir las necesidades aún no atenidad de las juventudes indígenas.

Reviving the Deadzone

January 10, 2022

For more than 30 years, scientists have investigated an area of deep water in the Gulf known as a "dead zone," which contains so little oxygen that fish and other marine life flee from it or die (Hazen et al. 2009). In the summer of 2017, it swelled to the size of New Jersey. The size of this area experiencing often fatally low levels of oxygen—what scientists call hypoxia— varies depending upon spring rains and snow melt. These carry large quantities of excess soil nutrients, largely nitrogen, down the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers to the Gulf. There, this polluted water sets off a chain reaction of ecological and economic consequences straining the resilience of diverse fishing operations and local communities that depend upon a healthy Gulf for their livelihoods.

New Orleans and the Hollow Prize Problem: Structural Limits on Black Political Power

January 10, 2022

Mayors in the United States often have more influence on the day-to-day activities of residents within their unique jurisdictions thanany other elected office. While each U.S. president holds significant power as Commander-In-Chief, the primary direct interface mostcitizens have with the U.S. Government is either through its taxing function or by receiving some form of financial benefit such as SocialSecurity or Medicaid. Each governor has wide powers in determining state funding priorities for highways, healthcare, and education,but not all citizens rely on these services to the same degree. Mayors, however, have a say in the provision of the services that residents use every single day. This includes water, sewerage, electricity, sanitation, roads, and drainage, to name a few.1

Strengthening Border Families: Frontline Practitioner Perspectives on Service Access for Immigrant Families with Young Children in Doña Ana County, NM

December 22, 2021

In recent years, federal immigration and public benefits policies with implications for immigrant families in the U.S. have been extraordinarily restrictive and punitive. These policies have exacerbated a climate of fear and vulnerability for immigrant families, while also creating significant barriers to service access and eligibility for immigrant families, particularly those services that are important for child health and wellbeing. The borderlands of New Mexico are one of the most impoverished areas of the country, where the day-to-day experiences of immigrant children and families are impacted by complex border policies and dynamics that restrict access to needed supports.