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Bending The Arc: How The Full Spectrum of Capital Can Enable Inclusive Growth in Agriculture

January 30, 2020

While the world has made huge economic gains over the past 50 years, this progress has been highly uneven. This is particularly acute in the agriculture sector, with many of the 500 million smallholder farmers around the world living on meager incomes and facing high levels of economic insecurity.Despite some recent innovations and advances in including smallholders as market players, there have been few cases where truly widespread, market-level, transformative change towards inclusion has been achieved.In this report, we explore the role of different kinds of capital in bending the arc of agricultural market development towards inclusive growth. We pay particular attention to how impact-focused players deploying capital that is flexible in terms of risk-return expectations can best deploy it in order to catalyze large-scale transformations towards inclusion.

Safely Managed Sanitation in High-Density Rural Areas : Turning Fecal Sludge into a Resource Through Innovative Waste Management

September 1, 2019

Safely managed sanitation is a focus of the SDGs and central to stunting reduction and early childhood survival, both identified by the World Bank's Human Capital Index as critical for humans to develop their full potential. In 2015, 4.5 billion people lacked access to safely managed sanitation. This paper finds that hundreds of millions more people are exposed to significant health risks due to unsafely managed sanitation. This report explores the challenges of fecal sludge management (FSM) in densely populated rural areas and it presents some typical current practices, examples of financially sustainable FSM services, and global innovations in waste management with potential replicability for FSM. Its aim is to promote dialogue on how to move from the Millennium Development Goals' approach to rural sanitation—effectively, building toilets—to the Sustainable Development Goals' approach: safely managed sanitation systems. The paper concludes that the sanitation service chain spans both private and public goods, and market mechanisms are not always adequate to mitigate the safety risks. Public funding will be needed to cover the affordability gap and address safely managed sanitation, requiring a clear and long-term commitment and support from government. The case is similar to that for networked sanitation: without public support, improving the safety of existing FSM services is likely to decrease profit margins and potentially render businesses unviable.

Global Innovations in Measurement and Evaluation

June 26, 2017

We researched the latest developments in theory and practice in measurement and evaluation. And we found that new thinking, techniques, and technology are influencing and improving practice. This report highlights 8 developments that we think have the greatest potential to improve evaluation and programme design, and the careful collection and use of data. In it, we seek to inform and inspire—to celebrate what is possible, and encourage wider application of these ideas.

What Potential is There for Container Based Sanitation and the Social Enterprise in Urban Emergencies?

December 1, 2016

Sanitation response for urban emergencies continues to present serious challenges to humanitarian agencies. Urban environments present their own unique setting and often add multiple constraints which can confound response strategies. In most emergency situations, for both first phase and second phase response, the default sanitation option, where suitable, is the simple pit latrine. But where certain constraints exist, such as the ground conditions or risk of flooding, alternative sanitation technologies to the pit latrine need to be selected. This report looks at the different technology options.

The Importance of Addressing Housing, Land and Property (HLP) Challenges in Humanitarian Response

April 29, 2016

This title is sourced from the IDS Knowledge Services Open API - paper was published to inform the round table talks on "the importance of housing, land and property (HLP) rights in humanitarian response" held in Geneva.The NRC and IFRC are the global focal point agencies within the HLP Area of Responsibility under the Global Protection Cluster, a collaboration between NGOs, UN agencies, and academic institutions. The statement of the Global Protection Cluster provides the basis for this paper to develop a deeper understanding of how a human rights framework, specifically the right to adequate housing, can inform responses to disasters and conflict and promote protection within humanitarian operations. This paper aims to present that HLP rights is a cross-sectoral issue, and although this manifestation is acknowledged by some, it still represents a barrier to operations.

Pushing the Boundaries: Understanding Women's Participation and Empowerment

November 1, 2015

Trócaire undertook three year multi-country research on women's participation within decision making spaces at the grassroots level. 'Empowerment' was defined in the research as the process of pushing against the boundaries to shape new fields of possible action, by increasing the capacity of those with less power to engage with those with more power. The research was undertaken in three countries, Democratic Republic of Congo, India and Nicaragua, implementing governance and gender equality programmes through local partner organisations. It set out to better understand how participation contributes to processes of empowerment and the reduction of oppressive power relations between men and women, as well as citizens and the state. A bibliography is included. More information is available on:

Engaging Citizens against Corruption in Asia: Approaches, Results, and Lessons

January 1, 2013

This report summarizes the methodology, learning and results of the 2011 PTF Asia Regional Workshop on the theme of "Engaging Citizens against Corruption in Asia: Approaches, Results and Lessons." The workshop was held in Jaipur, India, from 29 November to 2 December 2011. PTF brought together 70 participants from nearly 30 citizens against corruption projects in a range of Asian countries. In addition, there were representatives and speakers from universities, think tanks and donor agencies. Attendees came from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Paying for Watershed Services: an Effective Tool in the Developing World?

January 1, 2012

Payments for watershed services (PWS) are an increasingly popular conservation and water management tool in developing countries. Some schemes are thriving, and are pro-poor. Others are stalling or have only mixed success. Most rely on public or donor finance; and other sources of funding are unlikely to play a significant role any time soon. In part, financing PWS schemes remains a challenge because the actual evidence for their effectiveness is still scanty -- it is hard to prove that they actually work to benefit both livelihoods and environments. Getting more direct and concrete data on costs and benefits will be crucial to securing the long-term future of PWS schemes.

Fair Deals for Watershed Services: Lessons from a Multi-country Action-learning Project

January 1, 2010

Payments for ecosystem services make good sense. In the case of watershed ecosystems, downstream beneficiaries of wise upstream land and water stewardship should compensate these upstream stewards. These 'payments for watershed services' (PWS) should contribute to the costs of watershed management and, if upstream communities are also characterised by poverty, these payments should contribute to local development and poverty reduction as well. Debates about both conservation and development have seen a wave of excitement about payments for watershed services in recent years. But on the ground an equivalent surge of action is harder to see. IIED and its partners have been building on earlier international case study work to set up new PWS schemes - to 'learn by doing' and to improve our understanding of the opportunities and the challenges.This report is about the complex business of trying to put a simple conservation and development idea into practice. The idea is that watershed degradation in developing countries might be better tackled than it currently is if downstream beneficiaries of wise land use in watershed areas paid for these benefits. There are some examples around the world of this idea being put into practice - this report reviews these and describes what happened when teams in six developing countries set about exploring how the idea works on the ground.

All that Glitters: A Review of Payments for Watershed Services in Developing Countries

January 1, 2008

This report reviews the current status of payments for watershed services in developing countries. It highlights the main trends in the evolution of these schemes, synthesising the available evidence on their environmental and social impacts, and drawing lessons for the design of future initiatives. The interest in payments for watershed services (PWS) as a tool for watershed management in developing countries is growing, despite major setbacks. This review identified 50 ongoing schemes, 8 advanced proposals and 37 preliminary proposals for PWS. A previous review published by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) on markets and payments for environmental services (Silver Bullet or Fools' Gold? (Landell-Mills and Porras 2002)) identified just 41 proposed and ongoing PWS schemes in developing countries, which suggests a considerable growth in interest in this approach.

The Vittel Payments for Ecosystem Services: A Perfect PES Case?

January 1, 2006

This paper describes and analyses the PES programme developed and implemented by Vittel (Nestlé Waters) in north-eastern France. In order to address the risk of nitrate contamination caused by agricultural intensification in the aquifer, the world leader in the mineral water bottling business is financing farmers in the catchment to change their farming practices and technology. The paper examines the methodology used by Vittel, and the tenyear process that was necessary to transform conflict into a successful partnership.The paper's main conclusion is that establishing PES is a very complex undertaking, one that requires the consideration of scientific but also social, economic, political, institutional, and power relationships. The ability to maintain farmers' income level at all times and finance all technological changes was an important element of success, but primary reasons for the programme's success were not financial. Trust-building through the creation of an intermediary institution (locally based and led by a "champion" sympathetic to the farmers' cause); the development of a long-term participatory process to identify alternative practices and a mutually acceptable set of incentives; the ability to link incentives to land tenure and debt cycle issues and to substitute the old technical and social support networks with new ones, were all fundamental conditions of success.

Silver Bullet or Fools' Gold? A Global Review of Markets for Forest Environmental Services and Their Impact on the Poor

January 1, 2002

Market-oriented approaches to environmental management are increasingly common in all sectors of the economy. Forestry is no exception. As forestry sectors around the world open their doors to growing private sector participation, governments have been increasingly attracted to market-based instruments as a new set of tools for guiding private investment. Of the many instruments available to policy-makers, by far the most ambitious to date is the development of markets for forest environmental services, such as carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, watershed protection and landscape values. Markets are thought to offer an efficient mechanism for promoting and financing forest protection and sustainable forest management. However, policy-makers' enthusiasm for market development is not matched by practical understanding. Very little guidance is available on the mechanics of market evolution, or on the consequences of markets for human welfare. Unanswered questions abound. What drives market development? How should markets be established? What costs are involved? Will markets improve welfare? Will some stakeholders benefit more than others? How does performance vary between market structures? What is the role for governments? Of particular concern is the lack of knowledge related to what market creation means for poor people. The critical question is whether markets for forest environmental services can contribute to poverty reduction, while at the same time achieving efficient environmental protection. In short, do markets for forest environmental services offer a "silver bullet" for tackling economic,social and environmental problems in the forestry sector, or are they simply "fools' gold"?Drawing on ideas in New Institutional Economics and recent thinking on forests and poverty, this paper attempts to shed light on these questions through (1) the development of a conceptual framework for guiding research; and (2) the application of this framework in a global review of emerging markets for carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, watershed protection and landscape beauty. In total, 287 cases are reviewed from a range of developed and developing countries in the Americas, the Caribbean, Europe, Africa, Asia and the Pacific.