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Philanthropy and Development in Southern Africa: Executive Summary

May 15, 2015

The Rosetta Stone, created in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic era under the reign of King Ptolemy V, is an archaeological gem for history buffs, documenting a decree in three ancient scripts: demotic, hieroglyphics, and ancient Greek. It is credited as the key to understanding the language of the ancient empire. But it was also key to their economics: the Stone was a virtual tax agreement granting mega exemptions to priests, military and other elites, and in the process, shifting the tax burden to the poor and the slaves. Operationalising poverty required governance: it would fall to the priests and other philanthropists to provide carefully managed 'relief' when things became unbearable. The purpose, of course, was maintaining the system rather than changing it.

Domestic Prosecutions of International Crimes in Africa

February 26, 2015

Following the disputed results of the general election in 2007, Kenya plunged into violence. It had been a very closely contested election between Mwai Kibaki, the incumbent president, and Raila Odinga the leader of opposition. Their supporters were both emotive and impassioned about the entire process. Initially it was thought that the violence following the announcement of the election results was a spontaneous public reaction to what was seen as a flawed electoral process. The widespread and systematic nature of the violence however, hinted at a more deliberate and articulate plan to attack the civilian population. The violence led to the death of over a thousand persons, the rape and sexual violation of over nine hundred women and the displacement of over six hundred thousand people.

All Bark No Bite? State Cooperation with the International Criminal Court

February 26, 2015

In late 2007, Kenya held a closely contested presidential election whose outcome was challenged by the opposition. The disputed election results were followed by widespread violence that left 1,133 people dead, 663,921 displaced, hundreds of women and men sexually violated and property worth millions of shillings destroyed.1 When Kenya failed to establish a domestic tribunal to prosecute those suspected of serious atrocity crimes, as recommended by a Commission of Inquiry established by the international mediation process led by Kofi Annan, the International Criminal Court (ICC) intervened, opening cases against six high profile Kenyans in March 2010.

A Real Option for Justice? The International Crimes Division of the High Court of Kenya

February 26, 2015

One and a half years since the International Crimes Division (ICD) in the High Court of Kenya was first proposed by the Judicial Service Commission (JSC) in its report of October 20121 , there has been little concrete movement towards actually setting up the Division. This is not in itself a criticism; such processes should take the time necessary to achieve the desired results. However, apart from publishing the report, making several 'bench-marking' visits to other countries and holding two low-key workshops, the JSC seems to have made little progress towards actualising an ICD. Despite this inertia, the Division continues to be touted in official circles as a potential answer to providing justice for victims of post-election violence as well as a potential replacement of the ICC ongoing process.

Philanthropy and Development in Southern Africa: Philanthropy and Illicit Financial Flows Options for African Philanthropy to Support Better Economic Governance and Reduce Illicit Financial Flows

January 1, 2015

This paper will consider the interrelationship between illicit financial flows (IFFs) and philanthropy in the South African and African economies. The objective of this paper is to explore ways in which African philanthropy can support efforts to improve economic governance and reduce IFFs. Illicit flows have been estimated at over US$1.2 trillion globally in 2012, with particularly harmful effects in vulnerable economies and in African extractive economies in particular (Global Integrity Foundation, 2013; UNECA, 2014). The issue is multi-faceted and involves philanthropic organisations at several different levels: firstly as organisations themselves, secondly with regard to the organisations and individuals with which they work, and thirdly, at a broader scale, in terms of their influence, advocacy and campaign efforts aimed at structural change in the macro economy for the benefit and wellbeing of the poor and excluded. The third is important since the scale of funds that philanthropy can provide to ameliorate poverty, inequality, social exclusion and clean environments is currently considerably offset by the amount of resources directed away from the vulnerable due to IFFs and the consequences of the way the global economy is designed and regulated more generally. Ameliorating IFFs requires building cross-issue networks and platforms for advocacy and campaigning; moving to an African philanthropy narrative and funding base; improving internal transparency; while continuously acting to reduce opacity in the giving sector and beyond, in order to build economic justice.

Philanthropy and Development in Southern Africa: Tax (In)Justice and Philanthropy

January 1, 2015

In the Philanthropy & Development in Southern Africa series, three related research papers; on philanthropy and resource governance (Shauna Mottiar), on illicit flows and tax (Khadija Sharife), and on illicit flows and the potential and policy required to change economic structures (Sarah Bracking), all focus on the contemporary and enduring problem of economic injustice in Africa in the context of huge and increasing outflows of illegally transferred wealth. The three papers explore illicit financial flows as both cause and consequence of malign structures of political economy, and then ask what philanthropists can best do about the agenda of illicit flows and economic justice.

Philanthropy and Development in Southern Africa: Philanthropy and Resource Governance

January 1, 2015

Philanthropic practice in the resource extraction sector is significantly under researched and forms the basis for this study. An obvious concern for social justice scholars and development scholars alike is that massive profits accumulated from resource extraction initiatives in Africa are seldom re-invested in the communities directly impacted or even more broadly in the development agendas of countries that house these resources. This paper considers the role of philanthropy in the resource governance debate. It begins by outlining the scope of resource governance and considering understandings of philanthropy. Drawing on preliminary evidence from three (random) examples of resource extraction in Africa, it argues that philanthropic practice has some way to go before reaching its optimal potential and that further research is required to gain more insight into this potential. The paper concludes with a discussion on philanthropy's role in resource governance and incorporates a series of recommendations.

Case Studies Enhancing Women's Dignity Project

December 31, 2012

For two years, between 2009 and 2011, TrustAfrica, with support from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has implemented a Millennium Development Goal 3 (MDG3) project entitled Enhancing Women's Dignity. The project covered seven countries in francophone sub-Saharan Africa: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Mali, Niger, and Senegal. The Enhancing Women's Dignity project aimed at building capacity to reduce violence against women, and increase women's political participation. The document covers seven case studies of compelling projects that were carried out by grantee partners in each of the target countries.

Women's Political Participation Training Manual: Communication and Strategic Advocacy

December 31, 2011

This manual was developed following a workshop on communication and strategic advocacy to increase women's political participation.

The Story Behind the Well: A Case Study of Successful Community Development in Makutano, Kenya

September 16, 2011

What are the key ingredients that are required to make "good development" happen and how can they be fostered? The story behind the well: a case study of successful community development in Makutano, Kenya is a new publication from the GFCF and the Coady International Institute. It tells the story of Makutano, a community in rural Kenya, which over the course of the last fourteen years has transformed itself from a poor, inaccessible and arid "outback" into a thriving hotbed of people-led development.

Putting People at the Center of Regional Development

June 10, 2004

Hannah Nyokabi Kaniaru makes a living selling fruit at the City Market in Nairobi, Kenya. In neighboring Uganda, Thomas Wanyika Maembe spends his days promoting sustainable fishing practices on Lake Victoria. And in Tanzania, Chris Maina Peter splits his time, teaching law in Dar es Salaam and helping to oversee a legal aid center in Zanzibar. Not long ago, all three of them had a unique opportunity to share their thoughts on the East African Community (EAC), a resurgent effort to bring their countries closer together economically, socially, and politically.