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A War in a Pandemic: Implications of the Ukraine crisis and COVID-19 on global governance of migration and remittance flows

May 13, 2022

This Migration and Development Brief (number 36 in the series) discusses the anticipated effects of the Russian invasion of Ukraine on migration and remittance flows. And ahead of the International Migration Review Forum to be held in May 2022, the brief indicates how the global governance of migration can be strengthened and cross-border remittance flows facilitated. Developments concerning migration-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators for which the World Bank is a custodian--increasing the volume of remittances as a percentage of gross domestic product (SDG indicator 17.3.2) and reducing remittance costs (SDG indicator 10.c.1)--are also discussed.

Safely Managed Sanitation in High-Density Rural Areas : Turning Fecal Sludge into a Resource Through Innovative Waste Management

September 1, 2019

Safely managed sanitation is a focus of the SDGs and central to stunting reduction and early childhood survival, both identified by the World Bank's Human Capital Index as critical for humans to develop their full potential. In 2015, 4.5 billion people lacked access to safely managed sanitation. This paper finds that hundreds of millions more people are exposed to significant health risks due to unsafely managed sanitation. This report explores the challenges of fecal sludge management (FSM) in densely populated rural areas and it presents some typical current practices, examples of financially sustainable FSM services, and global innovations in waste management with potential replicability for FSM. Its aim is to promote dialogue on how to move from the Millennium Development Goals' approach to rural sanitation—effectively, building toilets—to the Sustainable Development Goals' approach: safely managed sanitation systems. The paper concludes that the sanitation service chain spans both private and public goods, and market mechanisms are not always adequate to mitigate the safety risks. Public funding will be needed to cover the affordability gap and address safely managed sanitation, requiring a clear and long-term commitment and support from government. The case is similar to that for networked sanitation: without public support, improving the safety of existing FSM services is likely to decrease profit margins and potentially render businesses unviable.

Escualas Azules: Vinculando el Agua, Saneamiento e Higiene (WASH) con la Educación y las Prácticas Ambientales en las Escuelas

November 15, 2018

Una Escuela Azul ofrece un entorno de aprendizaje saludable y expone a los alumnos a tecnologías y prácticas respetuosas con el medioambiente, que ellos pueden replicar en sus comunidades.El Catálogo de Ejercicios Prácticos tiene como objetivo inspirar a los profesores con ejercicios prácticos y de bajo costo para complementar las lecciones del plan de estudios nacional. Los ejemplos proporcionados facilitan el aprendizaje de los alumnos mediante la práctica y pueden ser reproducidos en sus hogares y comunidades. Proporciona ejemplos de ejercicios prácticos para cada tema de la Guía de las Escuelas Azules:1. El Medioambiente que Me Rodea2. El Ciclo del Agua3. La Cuenca alrededor de Mi Escuela4. Mi Agua Potable5. Saneamiento e Higiene6. Crecimiento y Cambio7. De la Tierra al Plato8. Transformando los Residuos en Recursos.Para cada tema, se proporcionan secciones de información técnica para facilitar la comprensión de los conceptos básicos claves. Cada tema incluye una selección de actividades de aprendizaje, participativas o creativas, discusiones,demostraciones, juegos y experimentos, todos los cuales requieren material sencillo, a bajo costo o sin costo alguno. Los ejercicios prácticos tienen como finalidad ayudar a alcanzar los objetivos claves de aprendizaje definidos en laprimera página de cada tema. Se indica el nivel de dificultad de cada ejercicio; dependiendo de la clase y del grupo de edad, los profesores pueden seleccionar las actividades más apropiadas y los estudiantes pueden profundizar susconocimientos sobre estos temas de año en año.Este catálogo es una compilación de referencias de la comunidad de práctica de WASH en Escuelas (WINS), así como de otros sectores relacionados con los temas de las Escuelas Azules. Puede evolucionar: Las futuras ediciones de esteCatálogo beneficiarán de los aportes y comentarios de usuarios y expertos de todo el mundo. El formulario de retroalimentación está disponible en el sitio web del Consorcio Suizo de Agua y Saneamiento:http://waterconsortium.ch/blueschool/.Se invita a los usuarios de este documento a que consulten también los otros materiales del Kit Escuelas Azules, es decir, la Reseña Conceptual, la Guía del Facilitador y el Catálogo de Tecnologías. Estos documentos pueden serdescargados en el sitio web del Consorcio Suizo de Agua y Saneamiento.

Blue Schools: Linking WASH in Schools with Environmental Education and Practice

November 14, 2018

A Blue School offers a healthy learning environment and exposes students to environmentally-friendly technologies and practices that can be replicated in their communities. It inspires students to be change agents in their communities and builds the next generation of WASH and environment sector champions.The Facilitator's Guide is designed to provide a visual support for teachers to introduce or strengthen the Blue Schools topics to students – including overlooked topics such as gender, menstrual hygiene management and transformation of solid waste into resources.It follows the 8 topics of the Blue Schools Kit:* 1. My Surrounding Environment* 2. The Water Cycle* 3. The Watershed around My School* 4. My Drinking Water* 5. Sanitation and Hygiene* 6. Growth and Change* 7. From Soil to Food* 8. From Waste to ResourcesFor each topic, it suggests learning objectives, questions for discussion and examples of practical exercises. Images should be adapted to the local context and culture as appropriate.The full description of the practical exercises, how to implement it and picture sources, as well as technical background sections on each topic are found in the Catalogue of Practical Exercises.Users of this document are also encouraged to refer to the other materials of the Blue Schools Kit i.e. the Catalogue of Practical Exercises, the Concept Brief and the Catalogue of Technologies.

Blue Schools: Linking WASH in schools with environmental education and practice - Catalogue of Practical Exercises, 1st Edition

November 14, 2018

A Blue School offers a healthy learning environment and exposes students to environmentally-friendly technologies and practices that can be replicated in their communities. It inspires students to be change agents in their communities and builds the next generation of WASH and environment sector champions.The Catalogue of Practical Exercises aims to inspire teachers with hand-on and low cost exercises to complement the lessons from the national curriculum. The examples provided facilitate students' learning by doing and can be replicated in the students' home and in their communities.It provides examples of practical exercises for each topic of the Blue Schools Kit:1. My Surrounding Environment2. The Water Cycle3. The Watershed around My School4. My Drinking Water5. Sanitation and Hygiene6. Growth and Change7. From Soil to Food8. From Waste to Resources.For each topic, technical background sections are provided to facilitate understanding of basic key concepts. Each topic includes a selection of teaching, participatory or creative activities, discussions, demonstrations, games, and experiments, all requiring simple material at little to no cost. The practical exercises aim to help reaching the key learning objectives defined in each topic's first page. The level of difficulty for each exercise is indicated; depending on the class and age group, teachers can select the most appropriate activities and students can deepen their knowledge on these topics from year to year.This catalogue is a compilation of references from the WASH in School (WINS) community of practice as well as other sectors related to the Blue Schools' topics. It can evolve: Future editions of this Catalogue will benefit from inputs and feedback from users and experts from around the world. Feedback form available on the Swiss Water and Sanitation Consortium website: http://waterconsortium.ch/blueschool/Users of this document are also encouraged to refer to the other materials of the Blue Schools Kit i.e. the Concept Brief, the Facilitator's Guide and the Catalogue of Technologies. These can be downloaded on the Swiss Water and Sanitation website.

Compendium of Sanitation Technologies in Emergencies

January 1, 2018

Appropriate and adequate sanitation solutions are crucial for the protection of human health in emergencies. In recent years there has been an increasing number of sanitation innovations, appropriate for a variety of humanitarian contexts and a stronger sector focus on the entire sanitation service chain (from the toilet via collection and conveyance to the final treatment and safe disposal and/or reuse).Building on these developments, the Compendium of Sanitation Technologies in Emergencies provides a comprehensive, structured and user-friendly manual and planning guide for sanitation solutions in emergency settings. It compiles a wide range of information on tried and tested technologies in a single document and gives a systematic overview of existing and emerging sanitation technologies.This publication is primarily a capacity building tool and reference book. In addition, it supports and enables decision making by providing the necessary framework for developing a sanitation system design. It gives concise information on key decision criteria for each technology, facilitating the combination of technologies to come up with full sanitation system solutions. Furthermore this compendium prioritises linking the sanitation technology selection with relevant cross-cutting issues, thereby promoting access to safe sanitation for all.

Potable Reuse: Guidance for producing Safe Drinking-Water

January 1, 2017

In response to growing pressures on available water resources, potable reuse represents a practical source of drinking-water in specific circumstances.This document describes how to apply appropriate management systems to produce safe drinking-water from municipal wastewater. Information is provided on specific aspects of potable reuse, including the quality and protection of source wastewaters, types of control measures, monitoring considerations and public acceptance. Application of potable reuse is also illustrated through a number of case studies.The guidance is intended for use by drinking-water suppliers and regulators who are familiar with the WHO's Guidelines for drinking-water quality and, in particular, the framework for safe drinking-water, including water safety plans. This publication may also be useful to others with an interest in potable reuse including environmental health and water resource professionals.

Scaling Success: Lessons from Adaptation Pilots in the Rainfed Regions of India

August 24, 2015

"Scaling Success" examines how agricultural communities are adapting to the challenges posed by climate change through the lens of India's rainfed agriculture regions. Rainfed agriculture currently occupies 58 percent of India's cultivated land and accounts for up to 40 percent of its total food production. However, these regions face potential production losses of more than $200 billion USD in rice, wheat, and maize by 2050 due to the effects of climate change. Unless action is taken soon at a large scale, farmers will see sharp decreases in revenue and yields.Rainfed regions across the globe have been an important focus for the first generation of adaptation projects, but to date, few have achieved a scale that can be truly transformational. Drawing on lessons learnt from 21 case studies of rainfed agriculture interventions, the report provides guidance on how to design, fund and support adaptation projects that can achieve scale.

Realising the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation: A Handbook

September 1, 2014

This Handbook is the product of six years of work by the first UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights to water and sanitation, Catarina de Albuquerque. It explains the meaning and legal obligations that arise from these rights, translating the often complex technical and legal language into accessible information.The Handbook, which is presented across nine booklets addressing different areas of activity, is targeted towards governments at all levels, donors and national regulatory bodies. It provides information that will also be useful to other local, regional and international stakeholders, including civil society, service providers and human rights organisations.The first part of the handbook, the introduction, is available here. The other parts are available at the website: http://www.righttowater.info/handbook/#1

Feasibility Study: Social Protection in South Central Somalia

March 1, 2014

In recent years, there has been a growing recognition by policy makers and the international development community that longer-term social protection programming has the potential to reduce poverty and inequality and serve as a foundation upon which, viable livelihoods can be built. In many countries, specially those that are frequently affected by climatic and conflict hazards, this has led to calls for a shift in approach away from interventions thatsimply address the symptoms of household vulnerability towards those which deal with the causes. For more than two decades Somalia has lurched from one humanitarian crisis to another. This debate around the potential of social protection is therefore particularly acute, as years of humanitarian programming seem to have had little impact on increasing household resilience to shocks. Furthermore, the country still ranks 165 out of the 170 countries included in the UN's Human Development Index, and number one on the US Fund for Peace 'Failed State Index'.A consortium of agencies working in Somalia commissioned this study: Adeso, ACF, DRC and Save the Children. The study is intended to further the discussion on the rationale and practicalities of social protection in South Central Somalia, and to serve as a starting point for the debate around moving away from short-term responses towards longer-term social protection interventions by these agencies, and others.The report comprises six parts: Part 1 describes the political economy in South Central Somalia and highlights some key challengesfor humanitarian actors; Part 2 defines the general concept of social protection and looks at the global evidence of the impact of social protection; Part 3 looks at social protection programs in African countries (particularly those in the Somalia region), and also in fragile states; Part 4 looks at current social protection mechanisms in South Central Somalia; Part 5 describes the actions that are currently needed before humanitarian programming can become predictable, and Part 6 summarizes the way forward, including recommendations and the conclusions from the study.

Gaining Depth: State of Watershed Investment 2014

January 1, 2014

Last year, governments, businesses, and donors channeled $12.3 billion (B) toward nature-based solutions to the global water crisis. Water users and public funders were paying land managers to repair and protect forests, wetlands, and other natural systems as a flexible, costeffective strategy to ensure clean and reliable water supplies, resilience to natural disasters, and sustainable livelihoods. These deals paid for watershed protection and restoration across more than 365 million (M) hectares (ha) worldwide in 2013, an area larger than India.The value of investment in watershed services1 (IWS) - referring to funding for watershed restoration or protection that delivers benefits to society like aquifer recharge or erosion control - has been growing at anaverage rate of 12% per year. The number of operational programs grew by two thirds between 2011 and 2013, expanding in both scale and sophistication as program developers introduced new tools to track returns on watershed investment, coordinated efforts across political boundaries, and delivered additional benefits like sustainable livelihoods and biodiversity protection.

What Do We Know about Gender and Other Social Impacts of IWS Projects?: A Literature Review

January 1, 2013

The approach of this short literature review is to look firstly at what the literature has to say about wider social impacts of "investing in watershed services" (IWS) projects or programs and, secondly, to examine more specifically the gender issues. The term IWS is used in this paper as a convenient shorthand while realizing that this is a controversial term and that there is a case for using other terms such as "payments for watershed services", "reciprocal arrangements in watershed service provision" or "compensation for provision of watershed services." In the interest of brevity, this discussion is not entered into except to say that the term IWS is used here in a broad and inclusive way similar to "IWS-like schemes" as used in the Bellagio Conversations (Asquith & Wunder 2008).