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Inadequate and inequitable: water scarcity and displacement in Iraq (Arabic Version)

November 26, 2023

إن المناخ في العراق يتغير بسرعة يفوق قدرة سكانه على التكيف معه. درجات حرارةيشهد كل صيف تسجيل أرقام قياسية جديدة، بما في ذلك: خالل الفترةعالية غير مسبوقة وانخفاض قياسي في مستويات المياه.تجفيف جميع المواد الميتة وتعرض جميع الكائنات الحية لدرجات حرارة حارقة. الممتدة من شهر ايار إلى شهر تشرين الاول، تؤدي الحرارة الشديدة إلىيضطر الناس إلى البقاء في منازلهم طوال النهار بسبب الشمس، وحتى فيتجفيف الشعر. المساء، تستمر الحرارة في المدن، مما يجعلهم يشعرون وكأنهم داخل جهازتحدث الظروف المذكورة أعاله داخل دولة منخرطة حالًًيا في عملية إعادة هذه الدولة هيالإعمار بعد فترة طويلة من الصراع امتدت لعقدين من الزمن.موطن لحوالي 45 مليون فرد يبحثون عن وسيلة للمضي قدًًما في حياتهم.في حين أن تأثير الوضع في العراق يشعر به الجميع، فإن البعض سيواجه مليون عراقي1, ولا يزال ما يقدر بنحو 2الصيف بدعم أقل بكثير من الآخرين.300 لاجئ سوري يتم إيواؤهم فينازحين، هذا وبالإضافة إلى حوالي ,000 وفي حين يقيم جزء من النازحين1العراق الاتحادي واقليم كوردستان العراق. ما تكون خيامفي منازل، لكن يعيش معظمهم في مالجئ مؤقتة، وغالبًًا سنة بعد سنة،خالية من الهواء حيث يتواجدون تحت ظروف مناخية قاسية.تؤدي الحرارة إلى تفاقم معاناتهم، وتهدد بتدمير التقدم المحرز في سبلالسياسات والإجراءات المتعلقة بالنزوح. العيش والأمن الغذائي، كما تجعل من المستحيل تجاهل تغير المناخ في صنع  ر تقريًًرNRC) ينشر المجلس النرويجي لالجئين )منذ عام ,2021 الأمن حيث يتضمن التقرير أربعة مجالات اهتمام شاملة:الجفاف في العراق,المائي والحوكمة، الدخل وإنعدام الامن الغذائي، التوتر الاجتماعي، واخيرًًا تحليلنا إلى أن الطقس القاسي له وعلى نحو متزايد, يشير,الجفاف والنزوح.آثار ضارة على جوانب مختلفة، بما في ذلك إنتاج المحاصيل، إمكانية الوصولالنزوح الثانوي. ويعزز التحليل الذي أجراه شركاؤنا العديد من هذه النتائج: إلى أنظمة السوق ووظائفها، تكثيف الانقسامات الاجتماعية، وزيادة احتمالقدر الأمم المتحدة أن أكثر من 130 ألف عراقي قد نزحوا بسبب آثار تغير698 أن عملية التصحر يمكنCorps Mercy" كما تقدر منظمة ميرسي كور"المناخ,ان تتسبب في خسارة ما يصل إلى 40 بالمائة من الأراضي الصالحة للزراعة3في المناطق الجنوبية من البالد في السنوات القليلة القادمة.ر Iraq's climate is changing faster than people can adapt. With each passing summer, new records are logged: record high temperatures, record low water levels. Between May and October, the heat scorches all that is dead and sears everything that lives. During the day, the sun forces people inside; in the evening, the heat lingers in cities that feel like the inside of a hair dryer.All this is happening in a country rebuilding from 20 years of conflict; to 45 million people looking to find a way to move forward with their lives. While all in Iraq are affected, some face the summer with much less support than others. An estimated 1.2 million Iraqis are still displaced, in addition to the almost 300,000 Syrian refugees hosted in Federal and Kurdistan Region of Iraq. While some internally displaced people live in homes, most live in makeshift shelters, often in airless tents at the mercy of the extreme weather. Across the country, year after year, the heat compounds their suffering, threatens to undo painstaking gains in livelihoods and food security, and makes climate change impossible to ignore in policy and action around displacement. Starting in 2021, the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) has issued a yearly report on the impact of drought in Iraq across four broad themes: water security and governance, income and food insecurity, social tension, and drought and displacement. Increasingly, our analysis indicates that extreme weather is, among other things, negatively impacting crop yields, access and functionality of market systems, exacerbating social schisms, and precipitating risks of secondary displacement. Analysis by our partners reinforce many of these findings: the United Nations estimates upwards of 130,000 Iraqis have been displaced by effects of climate change; and Mercy Corps estimates up to 40 percent of arable land might be lost in the next few years in the southern parts of the country due to desertification.

Inadequate and inequitable: water scarcity and displacement in Iraq

November 26, 2023

Iraq's climate is changing faster than people can adapt. With each passing summer, new records are logged: record high temperatures, record low water levels. Between May and October, the heat scorches all that is dead and sears everything that lives. During the day, the sun forces people inside; in the evening, the heat lingers in cities that feel like the inside of a hair dryer.All this is happening in a country rebuilding from 20 years of conflict; to 45 million people looking to find a way to move forward with their lives. While all in Iraq are affected, some face the summer with much less support than others. An estimated 1.2 million Iraqis are still displaced, in addition to the almost 300,000 Syrian refugees hosted in Federal and Kurdistan Region of Iraq. While some internally displaced people live in homes, most live in makeshift shelters, often in airless tents at the mercy of the extreme weather. Across the country, year after year, the heat compounds their suffering, threatens to undo painstaking gains in livelihoods and food security, and makes climate change impossible to ignore in policy and action around displacement. Starting in 2021, the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) has issued a yearly report on the impact of drought in Iraq across four broad themes: water security and governance, income and food insecurity, social tension, and drought and displacement. Increasingly, our analysis indicates that extreme weather is, among other things, negatively impacting crop yields, access and functionality of market systems, exacerbating social schisms, and precipitating risks of secondary displacement. Analysis by our partners reinforce many of these findings: the United Nations estimates upwards of 130,000 Iraqis have been displaced by effects of climate change; and Mercy Corps estimates up to 40 percent of arable land might be lost in the next few years in the southern parts of the country due to desertification.

Environment of Peace: Security in a New Era of Risk

May 19, 2022

The environmental crisis is increasing risks to security and peace worldwide, notably in countries that are already fragile. Indicators of insecurity such as the number of conflicts, the number of hungry people and military expenditure are rising; so are indicators of environmental decline, climate change, biodiversity, pollution and other areas. In combination, the security and environmental crises are creating compound, cascading, emergent, systemic and existential risks. Without profound changes in approach by institutions of authority, risks will inevitably proliferate quickly.Environment of Peace: Security in a New Era of Risk surveys the evolving risk landscape and documents a number of developments that indicate a pathway to solutions––in international law and policy, in peacekeeping operations and among non-governmental organizations. It finds that two principal avenues need to be developed: (a) combining peacebuilding and environmental restoration, and (b) effectively addressing the underlying environmental issues. It also analyses the potential of existing and emerging pro-environment measures for exacerbating risks to peace and security. The findings demonstrate that only just and peaceful transitions to more sustainable practices can be effective––and show that these transitions also need to be rapid.Environment of Peace: Security in a New Era of Risk offers policy principles and recommendations for navigating this new era of risk. A longer report setting out the evidence base in detail will be published later this year.

NATO and Russia after the Invasion of Ukraine

April 4, 2022

Russia's invasion of Ukraine is the culmination of its increasingly militarized foreign policy centered around a small cast of decision-makers primarily in the military and security services close to the president. Its approach is aggressive, risk-tolerant, and deeply revisionist, spanning domains and leaning heavily on brutal tactics to achieve victory.NATO is now forced to return to its original mission—to defend Europe against an aggressive and highly militarized Russian foreign policy. NATO-Russia relations relatively normalized in the immediate post-Cold War context, resulting in waning European investments in defense capabilities. NATO only began reversing this trajectory in 2014, when Russia first invaded Ukraine, and must now significantly speed up its efforts.Key priorities include transitioning from forward deterrence to forward defense, augmenting NATO's capabilities in Europe and creating a greater role for Europe, strengthening regional partnerships, reestablishing risk-reduction mechanisms to manage a potential escalation between NATO and Russia, and considering long-term stabilization scenarios.

The Role of Packaging Regulations and Standards in Driving the Circular Economy

November 14, 2019

The development of packaging policies stems from intersecting challenges being faced by economies across the world. On one hand, growth in population has led to an increase in consumption and consequently an increase in the amount of per capita waste generation. Household waste generated contains increasing amounts of packaging waste and, more specifically, plastic packaging waste. On the other hand, existing municipal waste management infrastructure is struggling to keep up with basic collection of waste and is far from equipped handle plastic packaging waste by means that would result in recovery of material by recycling. Most of the plastic packaging waste ends up in the landfill or worse still, leaks into the environment. To confront the growing crisis of plastics leaking into the environment (particularly the marine environment), packaging policies are required to address the intersecting challenges of increasing packaging waste (plastics packaging waste in particular) and the limitations of existing municipal waste management infrastructures. Plastic packaging discussed in this report is defined as plastic materials used to cover and package consumer products. Plastic packaging generally refers to primary, secondary, and in some instances tertiary packaging materials. Whilst there is a lack of definition and standards with respect to plastic packaging waste in ASEAN, this report defines plastic packaging waste as plastic packaging materials which are either disposed of in the landfill or leaked into the environment..Post-consumer packaging collected by the formal and informal sector for recycling is also covered within this report.

The Importance of Addressing Housing, Land and Property (HLP) Challenges in Humanitarian Response

April 29, 2016

This title is sourced from the IDS Knowledge Services Open API - http://api.ids.ac.uk.This paper was published to inform the round table talks on "the importance of housing, land and property (HLP) rights in humanitarian response" held in Geneva.The NRC and IFRC are the global focal point agencies within the HLP Area of Responsibility under the Global Protection Cluster, a collaboration between NGOs, UN agencies, and academic institutions. The statement of the Global Protection Cluster provides the basis for this paper to develop a deeper understanding of how a human rights framework, specifically the right to adequate housing, can inform responses to disasters and conflict and promote protection within humanitarian operations. This paper aims to present that HLP rights is a cross-sectoral issue, and although this manifestation is acknowledged by some, it still represents a barrier to operations.

Brazil's Nuclear Kaleidoscope: An Evolving Identity

November 21, 2014

There is no shortage of international commentary on Brazil's nuclear policy, especially its advanced nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear submarine program. But remarkably little attention is paid to Brazilian voices on these issues. Brazilians paint a picture of an emerging power seeking nuclear independence and searching for its role in the global order. The aim here is to present these lesser-known Brazilian perspectives as accurately as an outsider can feasibly do. To help fill the void, the author had numerous conversations over two years with Brazilian policy experts, academics, former and current officials, and representatives of the nuclear industry. Unless otherwise noted, this report draws on personal interviews conducted in Brasília, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Campinas, and Washington, DC, in 2012 -- 2013. Critical analysis and external voices provide counterarguments or highlight notable gaps in perceptions between Brazilian and external viewpoints, but by and large the objective is to relay Brazilian views on the state of its nuclear program.

Kazakhstan: Cunning Democracy

October 16, 2013

Kazakhstan has travelled a long and sometimes difficult road in the years since independence in 1991. From being largely isolated from the world outside the Soviet Union, globalization has taken hold at an increasingly fast pace. Today, numerous international flights bring in still larger numbers of visitors -- be they businessmen, tourists or locals returning from studies or work abroad. The internet age is slowly reaching even the most outlying parts of the country, bringing with it new impulses and perspectives to a young population that grew up after the Soviet era.While the ongoing integration of Central Asia into the global scene involves rapid change on many levels, certain areas are still left behind. It is not unusual for the population to be without electricity and gas during severe winter frosts. Bureaucracy too, retains much of its post-Soviet legacy, as do the attitudes of some government officials and key decision-makers. National economic indicators are not always consistent with the reality of those struggling to get by in the cities and villages dotting Central Asia's vast landscape.As the economic leader of the Central Asian region and the country most strongly tuned in to the global diplomatic and business communities, Kazakhstan carries a particular responsibility to respect, and indeed to promote, human rights and democratic principles.However, while working along an ambitious program for planned future achievements both on the domestic and international arena, Kazakhstan has seen several major steps backwards in the area of human rights over the past two years.Following the tragic events in Zhanaozen in December 2011, when at least 16 strikers were shot and killed by government forces, authorities cracked down on selected opposition leaders such as Vladimir Kozlov of the Alga political party, sentencing him to seven-and-a-half years' imprisonment for his alleged involvement in the strikes. Soon after, the offices of Alga were closed down by authorities, followed by charges of extremism against independent and opposition media outlets, many of which were closed down by court order.As a result, Kazakhstan is currently economically strong, but suffering a bleak media scene, a lack of real political pluralism and a widespread disillusionment as to Kazakhstan's commitment to human rights.The following report summarizes some of our current concerns with regards to freedom of expression, freedom of assembly and freedom of religion or belief. It also brings the perspective of one of Kazakhstan's most respected writers on current affairs, Sergey Duvanov, in a special article for the 2013 Human Dimensions Implementation Meeting in Warszaw. Other texts were prepared by Ivar Dale (NHC) and Viktoria Tyuleneva (FH).

Installment 2 of "Creating a Sustainable Food Future": Reducing Food Loss and Waste

June 5, 2013

Approximately one out of every four calories grown to feed people is not ultimately consumed by humans. Food is lost and wasted to a varying extent across the globe, across all stages of the food value chain, and across all types of food. As a result, overall global food availability is lower than it would be otherwise, negatively affecting food security and requiring the planet's agriculture system to produce additional food to compensate for the food that is not ultimately consumed by people. The potential benefits of reducing food loss and waste are large. As a strategy for closing the food gap between food available today and food needed in 2050 to adequately feed the planet's projected 9.3 billion people, reducing food loss and waste satisfies each of the development and environmental criteria we introduced in the first installment of the Creating a Sustainable Food Future series. While increasing food availability, reducing food loss and waste can alleviate poverty and provide gender benefits while reducing pressure on ecosystems, climate, and water. Reducing food loss and waste may be one of those rare multiple "win-win" strategies.How can the world go about reducing food loss and waste on a large scale? This installment of the forthcoming "World Resources Report Creating a Sustainable Food Future" addresses that question. This working paper, which will feed into that report, begins by clarifying definitions of food loss and waste, then quantifies the scale of the problem and explores the impact addressing the problem could have on the food gap. The paper then focuses on practical solutions for reducing food loss and waste and presents case studies of successful initiatives. It concludes by offering recommendations for how to scale up reductions in food loss and waste.

Installment 1 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future: The Great Balancing Act

May 29, 2013

During 2013 and 2014, WRI is releasing on a rolling basis a series of "Creating a Sustainable Food Future" working paper installments. Each installment will analyze a menu item from our proposed "menu for a sustainable food future" and recommend policies and other measures for implementation. The series will not, however, cover all menu items. Questions each installment will consider include:What is the menu item?How big an impact could it make in food availability, economic development, and environmental benefits?Where might the menu item be most applicable?What are the three to five most promising, practical, and scalable approaches for achieving this menu item?What are the obstacles -- economic, political, technical, or other -- to implementing these approaches?How can these obstacles be overcome?What "bright spots" of success exist, and what can be learned from them?Each installment will be coauthored by its own cohort of WRI researchers, WRR partners, and renowned experts. Authors will engage representatives from target audiences during the research and writing phases. After the series has concluded, WRI will consolidate the installments into a final World Resources Report. To avoid overlap with upcoming installments, this first working paper does not cover many of the issues that may be important for the food-development-environment nexus. For instance, it does not cover international investments in agricultural land ("land grabs"); the merits of small-scale versus large-scale agricultural systems; the influence of land tenure, property rights, and generational succession laws and norms on agricultural productivity; and policies for providing access to clean energy services for agriculture. Future installments will address some of these issues. Many of the analyses in this series are global in nature and use global datasets. We recognize that they may not fully account for the ethical, cultural, and socioeconomic factors of specific locations. Moreover, the menu for a sustainable food future is designed for the long term; it is not a menu for tackling acute, near-term food shortage crises.

World Water Development Report 4: Managing Water Under Uncertainty and Risk

January 1, 2012

Building on the comprehensive approach taken in World Water Development Reports (WWDRs) 1 and 2, and the holistic view taken in WWDR3, this fourth edition gives an account of the critical issues facing water's challenge areas and different regions and incorporates a deeper analysis of the external forces (i.e. drivers) linked to water. In doing so, the WWDR4 seeks to inform readers and raise awareness of the new threats arising from accelerated change and of the interconnected forces that create uncertainty and risk - ultimately emphasizing that these forces can be managed effectively and can even generate vital opportunities and benefits through innovative approaches to allocation, use and management of water.

Beyond Bullets and Bombs: Fixing the U.S. Approach to Development in Pakistan

June 1, 2011

Explains the rationale for a clear U.S. strategy for Pakistan's development, ways to improve planning and implementation, and policy recommendations for supporting the private sector through trade and investment and targeting aid for long-term impact.