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White Paper: College Access and Retention of Career and Technical Education Graduates

June 17, 2009

This White Paper on post secondary access and persistence of career and technical education (CTE) graduates, particularly those with disabilities, is produced in collaboration with the Center for Labor and Market Studies at Northeastern University. Currently, little is known about the actual post secondary enrollment of graduates from Massachusetts public high schools and less is known about the post secondary outcomes of the subset of high school graduates with disabilities. Yet, the labor market environment that these young adults will enter is one characterized by a large and growing lifetime earnings advantage to earning a college degree. The findings are based on data about nearly 4,600 high school students from the Classes of 2004 through 2006 who graduated from seven vocational-technical high schools in Massachusetts.

Strategic Assessment of the State of the Science in Research on Employment for Individuals with Disabilities

August 1, 2007

This report provides a systematic review of recent research (primarily since 2002) related to employment of people with disabilities. It also identifies limitations and gaps in this research. The report reviews research in a variety of areas including supply-side factors influencing employment, employer attitudes and practices, labor market organization, work accommodations, progression of disability benefits and disability management, impact of public policy on employment, and vocational services interventions.

A Guide to Disability Statistics from the National Health Interview -- Disability Supplement

July 10, 2006

This User Guide contains information on the National Health Interview Survey -- Disability supplement (NHIS-D) that was fielded in 1994 and 1995.The User Guides provide disability data users with:An easily accessible guide to the disability information available in the major nationally representative surveys;A set of estimates on persons with disabilities from the dataset, including estimates on the size of the population, the prevalence rate, the employment rate and measures of economic well-being;A description of the unique features of the survey; andA set of estimates that highlight the unique features of the survey.

A Guide to Disability Statistics from the Survey of Income and Program Participation

February 1, 2006

Among its many advantages, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) includes several questions on health, functional limitations, employment, and participation in federal disability and other cash and in-kind assistance programs. It has therefore become the basis for several recent studies of people with disabilities that have focused, for example, on employment trends, changes in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and program participation (Burkhauser, Houtenville, and Wittenburg 2003; Kruse and Schur 2003; Hotchkiss 2003; Acemoglu and Angrist 2001; McNeil 2000; DeLeire 2000). This paper discusses the utility of the SIPP in disability analyses, including a summary of descriptive statistics on people with disabilities from multiple SIPP panels, including the most recent SIPP panel (2001). It is part of a series of papers for the Cornell Statistics Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (Cornell Stats RRTC). The findings provide insights into the various health, employment, income, and program participation outcomes that may be associated with different definitions of disability and illustrates the potential for using SIPP data in further disability analyses. Similar to the findings in the other user guide papers, our descriptive findings highlight the differences in the demographic composition and outcomes across disability definitions, underscoring the importance of carefully selecting an appropriate disability conceptualization in generating disability statistics.

Real Trends or Measurement Problems? Disability and Employment Trends from the Survey of Income and Program Participation

June 30, 2003

This paper addresses important concerns in using statistical data to track outcomes of people with disabilities and provides new evidence of employment trends of people with disabilities using alternative disability conceptualizations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). This analysis comes at an important time because some researchers have criticized the data and definitions used to measure these trends. At the extreme, some have concluded that such analyses should cease because of major limitations in measuring disability that exists in current surveys (especially the SIPP). Because the SIPP has been used extensively to examine outcomes of people with disabilities, it is important to understand these data criticisms and test whether the trends from the SIPP mirror those in other data sources. We conclude that the different empirical results found by researchers are not caused by "problems" with the data but rather with the assumptions researchers make when using the data. We illustrate the importance of exercising caution when developing disability questions and measuring disability trends in existing data sources. While some measures of limitations may be problematic, we find that the relatively broad measures used in several disability studies provide reasonable estimations of important subgroups of people with disabilities. We also show that the timing and structure of specific questions affects disability prevalence rates and influences observed outcomes. When we use comparable definitions across panels, we consistently find that employment rates of men with disabilities have fallen from 1990 to 1996 and employment rates of women with disabilities have remained flat. The consistency of these findings across a variety of measures illustrates an important and disturbing trend of downward employment rates for people with disabilities. These findings are particularly disturbing because they suggest that the gap in employment rates between those with and without disabilities is growing.

Restricted Access: Work Trends Survey of Employers About People with Disabilities

March 27, 2003

This report, Restricted Access: A Survey of Employers About People With Disabilities and Lowering Barriers to Work, surveys the nation's employers regarding their views on people with disabilities in the workplace, the accommodation of these workers, and policy strategies needed to increase workplace accessibility for all workers and job seekers. In addition, employers express a significant degree of concern regarding the nation's economy, unemployment rate, and their workers' job security, clearly conveying that the weakened economy continues to weigh on their minds.

State TANF Policy and Services to People With Disabilities

November 7, 2002

The intent of this study is to identify state policies and procedures that are designed to ensurethat people with disabilities and/or parents with children with disabilities are provided theopportunity to participate in state TANF programs. The intent is not to present "best practices," with quantifiable and measurable outcomes. Many state TANF programs are still in their early stages, with new programs being developed and outcomes still uncertain. The intent is to present an in-depth "snapshot" of what is occurring right now at the state level in terms of services and programs designed to assist TANF recipients with disabilities. Are states developing programs and policies specifically targeted toward people with disabilities? Are people with disabilities being served on an individual basis as part of the overall TANF population? Are states developing innovative strategies that particularly benefit TANF recipients with disabilities and, if so, what are they? By identifying these strategies, this report may assist other states in their policy development process in support of people with disabilities and parents with children of disabilities.

How The One-Stop System Serves People with Disabilities: A Nationwide Survey of Disability Agencies

June 1, 2002

The purpose of this study is to understand the opinion of the One-Stop system among state and local agencies that focus on people with disabilities. Representatives of agencies that specifically serve people with disabilities have a unique and important view of the One-Stop system's services. These people are knowledgeable about both the needs of job seekers with disabilities and the extent to which the One-Stop system in their state has included the disability community in planning and implementation.

One-Stop Accessibility: A Nationwide Survey of One-Stop Centers on Services for People with Disabilities

February 1, 2002

The purpose of this study is to ascertain the accessibility status of One-Stop centers andthe ways that workforce development systems are serving people with disabilities. It is important to gauge how services to people with disabilities are being implemented around the country. While WIA requires that all services be fully accessible to people with disabilities , and that VR agencies be partners in the One-Stop system, the real success of the One-Stop system for people with disabilities depends on the commitment of local Workforce Investment Boards (WIBs) and One-Stop Operators to create a system that responds to their needs. Services and programs for people with disabilities should not only focus on accessibility and nondiscrimination.

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998: Performance Management and People With Disabilities

January 11, 2002

The primer outlines the various components of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA). It also suggests ways that people with disabilities can fully access WIA systems and services.The report was prepared for the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Employment Policy for Persons with Disabilities and funded by the United States Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998: A Primer for People with Disabilities

January 11, 2002

The primer outlines the various componenets of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA). It also suggests ways that people with disabilities can fully access WIA systems and services.The report was prepared for the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Employment Policy for Persons with Disabilities and funded by the United States Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.