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The Future and Relevance of Nigerian Universities and other Tertiary Institutions

October 2, 2016

Higher education is the bedrock of sustainable national development, which encompasses structural transformation of an economy, human capital development, technological innovation, forging of democratic citizenship, social cohesion, nation building, and preserving the earth. Like other countries, these were the reasons for the establishment of universities and other tertiary education institutions in Nigeria. However, over the past three decades, beginning in the 1980s, in spite of increases in the number of higher education institutions, the sector has been bedevilled with several challenges that have blighted its fortunes and raised serious questions about the role and relevance of Nigerian universities and other tertiary education institutions to national development. The contributors to this book offer authoritative and eloquent accounts of these challenges and explicitly draw out the policy implications on how the challenges can be overcome in order for Nigerian higher education institutions to regain relevance to the developmental imperatives of the country, especially in the 21st century and beyond. This book will be of great value to students, leaders of higher education institutions, and policy makers in government and the private sector to chart new policy directions to revitalise the Nigerian higher education sector in order to be responsive to the needs of the country and its people, especially the teeming population of restless youths.

Opportunities and Challenges of the Ugandan Business Environment

January 15, 2015

This book contains findings of eight of the several research projects sponsored by the Investment Climate and Business Environment (ICBE) Research Fund in Uganda. It's an effort to provide evidence to inform policy that improves the business environment in Uganda. The findings coincide with the efforts of the government to implement policies and programs targeting private sector development, solving daunting problems of unemployment, economic growth and development. The studies have been carried out by Ugandans and address issues pertinent to the Ugandan economy, but also to other developing countries.

Les Déterminants de l’Entrepreneuriat des Jeunes en Afrique de l’Ouest : Le Cas de la Mauritanie et du Sénégal

February 1, 2014

La recherche s'intéressera à un sujet peu exploré mais d'un enjeu considérable pour le développement de la sous-région, à savoir les déterminants de l`entrepreneuriat des jeunes dans un contexte sahélo-saharien singulier, en  Mauritanie et au Sénégal. L'objectif de cette recherche consiste à identifier et à comparer les facteurs qui entrent en jeu dans le phénomène entrepreneurial des jeunes. La recherche vise à déterminer les facteurs qui poussent tel  ou tel jeune éduqué des milieux mauritaniens et sénégalais à s'adonner à des activités entrepreneuriales. Le souci de combler le manque de recherches gestionnaires sur le pourquoi de l'événement du phénomène entrepreneurial des  jeunes en Afrique et de contribuer au débat scientifique sur cette thématique nous a conduit à tester la validité des théories anglosaxonnes sur l'entrepreneuriat des jeunes dans ces deux pays.

Small Business Development and the Inclusive Business Concept

January 31, 2014

Trends in developing countries over the last two decades show that the involvement of small and very small enterprises makes a constructive contribution to building economies, especially during periods of economic recovery  (Government of South Africa, Detea et al. 2012a). Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) play a vital role in encouraging job creation and their successes are influenced greatly by their ability to enter the value chains of  larger organisations, in both the private and public sectors.

Supply-Side Opportunities and Constraints of Bank Credit to MSMEs in Zambia: Lessons and Implications for Policy

January 1, 2014

We thank TrustAfrica and IDRC for financial support and Bankers Association of Zambia for coordinating the survey of banks and giving substantial inputs on the study design. We also thank Bank of Zambia, Ministry of Commerce  Trade and Industry (MCTI), Ministry of Finance, Zambia Development Agency (ZDA) and Zambia Chamber of Association of Small and Medium Enterprises (ZACSMBA) for active representation on the study technical committee. We  also thank all the commercial banks that responded positively in the study. The study benefited from participants of the dissemination workshop held on 23rd August at Radisson Blu Hotel in Lusaka.

Constructs of Successful and Sustainable SME Leadership in East Africa

November 1, 2013

Despite the markedly increased foreign investment, East African economies remain characterized by low levels of investment and capital formation with high level of attrition amongst indigenous small and medium enterprises. While there is a high failure rate amongst these SMEs, some are beginning to turn the corner and are exhibiting signs of robustness, innovativeness and sustainability. Relying on narrative accounts of successful SMEs leaders in Kenya and Uganda obtained through interviews and focus group discussions, this study sought to construct an account of leadership practices and ascriptions of success for SMEs that had succeeded. The study identified eight leadership constructs characteristic of successful SME leaders in Kenya and Uganda grouped into visioning, building commitment, social capital, personal values, anticipation and resilience, resourcefulness, responsiveness, and entrepreneurial orientation. While these results, on the face value, are apparently not unique, it was in the nuances of the leadership practice that difference was made. In conclusion, the study highlights implications for these findings in relation to policy and leadership practice among SMEs.

PME Et Innovation : Une Analyse Comparative Entre Le Cameroun, Le Congo Et La RDC

November 1, 2013

Le présent travail a pour objectif d'identifier les déterminants de l'innovation au sein des PME de Brazzaville (Congo), Douala (Cameroun), et Kinshasa (RDC). Il s'appuie pour cela sur une enquête conjointe réalisée auprès des 256 PME des villes susmentionnées soit, 100 PME à Brazzaville, 56 à Douala et 100 à Kinshasa. L'analyse statistique des données révèle que les principaux obstacles à l'innovation sont le coût élevé de financement des innovations, le manque de moyens financiers et l'absence de dispositif de financement des innovations dans les trois pays. La dépendance des PME camerounaises des progrès techniques réalisés par leurs partenaires, le poids des obstacles à l'entrepreneuriat dans l'environnement immédiat des PME à Brazzaville et à Kinshasa, créent également une désincitation à innover. L'analyse économétrique a montré que les principaux déterminants de l'innovation des PME sont la taille de l'entreprise, les compétences du manager, l'intensité concurrentielle et l'utilisation des TIC. Cette dernière influence plus l'innovation organisationnelle. Le rôle de la taille de la PME est cependant faible au Cameroun probablement à cause de la faiblesse des contraintes financières dans ce pays par rapport aux deux autres. Les compétences du manager jouent également un rôle moins important au Congo-Brazzaville suite probablement au mauvais climat des affaires dans ce pays. Ainsi, nous recommandons aux gouvernements des trois pays étudiés, de mettre en place des dispositifs de financement de l'innovation, d'améliorer le climat des affaires, de favoriser l'adoption des TIC par les PME et d'encourager la formation des managers des PME.

The State of Business Practices and the Impact of BDS on MSMEs in Lusaka and Kabwe, Zambia

November 1, 2013

The micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) sector is generally viewed as an important component in stimulating economic growth and alleviating poverty. Many national MSME development frameworks contain support mechanisms intended to unlock full potential harboured by the MSME sector. Business development support is just one such mechanism, and within which Business Development Services (BDS) provide a specific means of influencing MSME practices towards enhanced enterprise performance and greater economic impact. The paper has looked at the practices, impact of BDS and determinants of business performance in Zambia using both descriptive and econometric analyses. Current BDS interventions do not seem to be well-aligned to key choke-point areas that could unlock the potential of Zambia's MSMEs. As such, BDS is not currently significantly influencing

Electric Power Outages and the Productivity of Small and Medium Enterprises in Senegal

November 1, 2013

This paper assesses the impact of electricity outages on firms' productivity in Senegal, using cost technical and allocative efficiency scores. Results based on survey data from 528 businesses indicate that power outage duration has a positive significant effect on cost and technical efficiencies, and SMEs were more successful in doing so than larger ones. Further, power outages' frequency, duration and their perceived severity have negative effects on scale efficiency. Finding a solution to the power outage issue while affecting negatively cost efficiency, seems to promote technical and scale efficiencies. Further, having a loans and/or a credit line appeared to have positive effects on technical and scale efficiencies.

Capacity Building Interventions, Entrepreneurship, Promotion of SMEs in Rwanda

November 1, 2013

There has been a vibrant policy framework for capacity building interventions to improve investment climate and business environment in Rwanda. This has affected the promotion of SMEs and entrepreneurship in Rwanda. But the effect and magnitude of capacity building interventions has not been studied. A survey of 414 SMEs in Rwanda indicates a considerable need large need (by more than 50 per cent f all SMEs) for capacity building interventions. More than 72 per cent of SMEs still tend to cluster in commerce and business. Finance and financial services tops the list of most binding capacity need (binding to 80.7 per cent of the firms) followed by training. Barriers to entrepreneurship and starting new business is risk by 20.3 per cent, financial constraints by 51.4 per cent, education 4 per cent and market conditions 10.4 per cent. Multiple institutions are involved in capacity building interventions but need to be better coordinated for better promotion of SMEs and entrepreneurship. There is still opportunity to diversify the types and location of SMEs

Réglementation et Performances des Micros, Petites et Moyennes Entreprises Camerounaises

November 1, 2013

L'objectif de ce travail est d'étudier les différentiels de performance entre les entreprises en fonction de leur niveau de formalisation en utilisant une méthodologie économétrique qui traite la formalisation comme une variable endogène, discrète et ordonnée. Les données utilisées ont été collectées auprès des entreprises des villes de Yaoundé et Douala entre octobre et novembre 2012. Les analyses économétriques basées sur un échantillon de 1017 entreprises permettent de montrer que : (i) les différentiels de performance entre les différents niveaux de formalité sont importants, mais celles-ci sont dues en grande partie aux caractéristiques observées des entrepreneurs et des entreprises, (ii) les pertes de profit subies par les entreprises informelles ou partiellement formelles augmentent avec le niveau d'éducation, l'âge de l'entrepreneur, la taille de n'entreprise mesurée par le nombre d'employés et le niveau de capital physique. Ce travail met en évidence des similitudes entre les entreprises informelles et celles qui sont partiellement formelles, et des différences entre ces deux groupes d'entreprises et celles qui sont complètement formelles.

Contribution des PME à la Diversification de la Production dans le Secteur Forêts et Environnement en République du Congo: Enjeux et Perspectives

November 1, 2013

Le présent rapport d'étape analyse la contribution des PME à la diversification de la production dans le secteur forêt et environnement. Il identifie les facteurs de blocage à la diversification. Pour étayer ceci, une enquête sur 103 PME a été réalisée simultanément à Brazzaville et à Pointe-Noire. Partant de la nouvelle chaîne de valeur forestière, construite sur la base des données recueillies, l'étude propose un schéma novateur permettant de renforcer la part de l'industrie forestière dans la croissance, l'emploi et les recettes de l'Etat.