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Climate Change in the American Mind: Beliefs & Attitudes, Fall 2023

January 10, 2024

This report is based on findings from a nationally representative survey – Climate Change in the American Mind – conducted by the Yale Program on Climate Change Communication and the George Mason University Center for Climate Change Communication. Interview dates: October 20 – 26, 2023. Interviews: 1,033 adults (18+). Average margin of error: +/- 3 percentage points at the 95% confidence level.

Views of democracy and society and support for political violence in the USA: findings from a nationally representative survey

September 29, 2023

BackgroundCurrent conditions in the USA suggest an increasing risk for political violence. Little is known about the prevalence of beliefs that might lead to political violence, about support for and personal willingness to engage in political violence, and about how those measures vary with individual characteristics, lethality of violence, political objectives that violence might advance, or specific populations as targets.MethodsThis cross-sectional US nationally representative survey was conducted on May 13 to June 2, 2022, of adult members of the Ipsos KnowledgePanel. Outcomes are weighted, population-representative proportions of respondents endorsing selected beliefs about American democracy and society and violence to advance political objectives.ResultsThe analytic sample included 8620 respondents; 50.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 49.3%, 51.7%) were female; and weighted mean (± standard deviation) age was 48.4 (± 18.0) years. Nearly 1 in 5 (18.9%, 95% CI 18.0%, 19.9%) agreed strongly or very strongly that "having a strong leader for America is more important than having a democracy"; 16.2% (95% CI 15.3%, 17.1%) agreed strongly or very strongly that "in America, native-born white people are being replaced by immigrants," and 13.7% (95% CI 12.9%, 14.6%) agreed strongly or very strongly that "in the next few years, there will be civil war in the United States." One-third of respondents (32.8%, 95% CI 31.7%, 33.9%) considered violence to be usually or always justified to advance at least 1 of 17 specific political objectives. Among all respondents, 7.7% (95% CI 7.0%, 8.4%) thought it very or extremely likely that within the next few years, in a situation where they believe political violence is justified, "I will be armed with a gun"; 1.1% (95% CI 0.9%, 1.4%) thought it very or extremely likely that "I will shoot someone with a gun." Support for political violence and for the use of firearms in such violence frequently declined with increasing age, education, and income.ConclusionsSmall but concerning proportions of the population consider violence, including lethal violence, to be usually or always justified to advance political objectives. Prevention efforts should proceed urgently based on the best evidence available.

Federal Child Care Relief Funds: Increased Access and Supported Providers

August 1, 2023

This report notes that the COVID-19 relief funds and federal childcare relief funds will be concluding in September 2023 and September 2024, and how that might impact the children and families in the four states of Michigan, Louisiana, New York and Virginia. It also outlines key themes in what the funding accomplished and how the funds have been used in each state. Laying out the worst-case scenarios and challenges families and their children will have to endure when the relief resources end.

Trends in Domestic Violence and Firearm Domestic Violence During COVID‑19 in Five US Cities

July 21, 2023

PurposeThe COVID-19 pandemic and resulting social and economic disruptions may be associated with increased risk for reported domestic violence (DV) and firearm-involved DV (FDV). This study examines trends in DV, FDV, and the proportion of DV incidents that involved firearms (FDV/DV) in five large US cities before and during the coronavirus pandemic.MethodWe examined monthly trends in DV and FDV during January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2020, which included the early part of the pandemic, using Poisson or negative binomial regressions. We used binomial regressions to assess trends in FDV/DV. We considered the onset of the pandemic to be March 2020.ResultsFindings varied across outcomes and cities. DV decreased in three cities: Kansas City (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR), 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86–0.90), Los Angeles (IRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99–1.00), and Nashville (IRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99–1.00) relative to trends pre-pandemic. FDV increased in three cities: Chicago (IRR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02–1.08), Los Angeles (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06–1.10), and Nashville (IRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01–1.05) and decreased in one: Kansas City (IRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87–0.90). FDV/DV increased in three cities: Chicago (Risk Ratio (RR), 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02–1.06), Los Angeles (RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.07–1.11), and Nashville (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02–1.06).ConclusionsWe found variation among cities in trends in reported DV, FDV, and FDV/DV during the first months of the coronavirus pandemic. Variation may be due to a number of factors, including differences in baseline DV and FDV rates; economic strain and unemployment; compliance with social distancing; firearm ownership and purchasing; the availability of DV services; delays in court processing and the early release of prisoners; and community-law enforcement relations.

2023 Silicon Valley Pain Index: If Silicon Valley Was a Nation, It Would be Deemed Politically Unstable

June 13, 2023

The purposes of the Silicon Valley Pain Index [SVPI] report are to:  (1) Provide an efficient, easily digestible, statistical overview of structured inequalities to inform policy and practice in "Silicon Valley."(2) Serve to measure Santa Clara County's performance as a "human rights county," which it declared in 2018 in accordance with the International Bill of Human Rights and in accordance with the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women [CEDAW] in 2023.  (3) Spark collaborations between scholars, students, stakeholders, communities, and policy makers to address inequality and achieve greater human rights practice.Originally inspired by Professor Bill Quigley's Katrina Pain Index following the devastating 2005 hurricane and later by national protests in the wake of the police murders of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor (2020), the 2020, 2021, and 2022 SVPIs illustrated the persistent racial discrimination in employment, education, and housing as well as the general income/wealth inequality that were exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and continue to define our region.  In contrast, the 4th Annual (2023) SVPI features new data that highlights the region's persistent inequalities, and the astronomical concentration of wealth into the hands of an incredibly small number of households and companies. As Russel Hancock, President and CEO of Joint Venture Silicon Valley, asserted, "If Silicon Valley were a country, that kind of wealth disparity would be considered politically unstable."

Communicating with Multilingual Populations: New Language Access Toolkit for Nonprofits

May 24, 2023

This Toolkit was created to help organizations working to serve, engage, organize, ormobilize linguistically diverse populations by considering ways to establish or improve itslanguage accessibility practices. The Toolkit includes practical information and tools intended to support nonprofit organizations in fostering organizational fluency around language accessibility, including tools to help operationalize language access at the project, program, or organizational level.

The Illusion of Parent Choice: Lessons Learned from BPC’s Parent Survey Series

May 10, 2023

In October 2019, BPC conducted its first national survey of parents in hopes of learning, "Do parents prefer child care closer to home or work?" We wanted to know how finding child care (the supply) impacts parents and their choices. Our first survey revealed parents prefer child care closer to home, but our survey raised more questions. Why do parents choose certain child care arrangements? What factors are most important to parents?As BPC set to investigate in early 2020, the pandemic shifted our focus to COVID-19's impact on child care, including closures, increased safety measures, and how remote work impacted the need for child care.

Mapping Evidence-Based Home Visiting Provided by Tribal-Led Organizations

April 19, 2023

This Data in Action Brief maps evidence-based home visiting provided by tribal-led organizations in light of recent federal efforts to expand services to more American Indian Alaska Native (AIAN) families. In 2022, Congress expanded the federal Tribal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (Tribal MIECHV) Program to account for 6 percent of MIECHV funds, rather than the previous 3 percent set aside.Tribal nation leaders, urban Native leaders, and community members have long advocated for resources to offset the negative impacts of genocide, colonization, historical trauma, systemic racism, and broken treaties by the U.S. government. MIECHV identifies families in tribes and urban Native communities as a priority population, in part to recognize these systemic harms and to honor the cultural heritage and sovereignty of Native nations. In this brief, we consider the degree to which tribal communities have been able to access—and chosen to implement—evidence-based home visiting services.

“What Language Do You Want to Complete This Application In?”: Comparing Spanish and English Applications to DC Public Prekindergarten

February 23, 2023

Public preschool can help children thrive and can promote equitable outcomes when families have access to it. District of Columbia Public Prekindergarten has enrolled the highest share of 3- and 4-year-old children in America for more than a decade in its full-day, school-year program. Using data from DC Prekindergarten applications from 2015 to 2020, we examined whether the probability of being matched to a ranked school differed across applications submitted in Spanish and English.Our findings suggest that DC Prekindergarten is generally accessible, even after accounting for language of application, with differences in probability of assignment instead based on grade of application. We find that families who applied to PK3 (prekindergarten for 3-year-olds) in Spanish were slightly less likely to be matched to a school, while families who applied to PK4 in Spanish were substantially more likely to be matched than families who applied in English. We also find applications completed in Spanish ranked fewer schools and ranked both more popular and more dual language programs than those completed in English. This study documents the need for continued examination of school offerings, families' needs, language supports, and the application process to ensure access to DC Prekindergarten.

Anticipatory concerns about violence within social networks: Prevalence and implications for prevention

January 11, 2023

Most research on exposure to violence focuses on direct victimization, offending, or witnessed violence, yet many people also experience concerns about potential violence in their environments and social networks. Using a state-representative survey of California adults (n = 2870) administered in July 2020, we estimate the prevalence of anticipatory concerns about violence within respondents' social networks and describe characteristics of the persons at perceived risk of violence, reasons for respondents' concerns, and actions undertaken by respondents to reduce that risk. Approximately 1 in 5 respondents knew at least one person, usually a friend or extended family member, whom they perceived to be at risk of other- or self-directed violence. Among respondents living with the person at perceived risk, about one-quarter reported household firearm ownership. Alcohol and substance misuse and a history of violence were among respondents' top reasons for concern; serious mental illness and firearm access also contributed to concerns. About one-quarter of respondents with such concerns said harm was likely or very likely to occur in the next year. Most respondents reported having taken action to reduce the risk of violence, including providing resources and asking family or friends to help; few acted to reduce access to lethal means. The most common reasons for inaction were the perception that a dangerous situation was unlikely and that it was a personal matter. Our findings can help inform a broader understanding of exposure to violence and interventions that leverage the knowledge of those close to persons at risk to prevent violence.

Early Educator Engagement and Empowerment (E4) Toolkit

December 20, 2022

E4 Toolkit gives educators more ways to advocate, connect their own narratives to other forms of research, and  explain why and how policies and investments in the ECE workforce can be improved. The toolkit is meant to be used by educators, and others who help facilitate educator advocacy. It is available in English and Spanish.

Conjunto de herramientas de participación y empoderamiento para educadoras de la primera infancia

December 20, 2022

E4 Toolkit ofrece a los educadores más formas de abogar, conectar sus propias narrativas con otras formas de investigación y explicar por qué y cómo se pueden mejorar las políticas y las inversiones en la fuerza laboral de ECE.El kit de herramientas está destinado a ser utilizado por educadores y otras personas que ayudan a facilitar la defensa de los educadores. Está disponible en inglés y español.