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Mapping India's Energy Policy 2022

May 31, 2022

Carefully designed energy support measures—subsidies, public utilities' investments, and public finance institutions' lending—and government's energy revenues play a key role in India's transition to clean energy and reaching net-zero emissions by 2070. Looking at how the Government of India has supported different types of energy from FY 2014 to FY 2021, the study aims to improve transparency, create accountability, and encourage a responsible shift in support away from fossil fuels and toward clean energy.Mapping India's Energy Subsidies 2022 covers India's subsidies to fossil fuels, electricity transmission and distribution, renewable energy, and electric vehicles between fiscal year (FY) 2014 and FY 2021.We found that fossil fuels continue to receive far more subsidies than clean energy in India. This disparity became even more pronounced from FY 2020 to FY 2021, going from 7.3 times to 9 times the amount of subsidies to renewables.

EVERYTHING COUNTS: Building a Control Regime for Nonstrategic Nuclear Warheads in Europe

May 10, 2022

Before the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the Biden administration insisted in arms control talks with Russia that a follow-on agreement to the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) should cover all nuclear weapons and that such an agreement should focus on the nuclear warheads themselves. This would represent a significant change from previous agreements, which focused on delivery vehicles, such as missiles. The United States has been particularly interested in potential limits on nonstrategic nuclear warheads (NSNW). Such weapons have never been subject to an arms control agreement. Because Russia possesses an advantage in the number of such weapons, the US Senate has insisted that negotiators include them in a future agreement, making their inclusion necessary if such an accord is to win Senate approval and ultimately be ratified by Washington. In the wake of Russian nuclear threats in the Ukraine conflict, such demands can only be expected to grow if and when US and Russian negotiators return to the negotiating table.

Rapid Gender Analysis Ukraine: May Update

May 3, 2022

The lives of people across Ukraine have been profoundly impacted by the humanitarian crisis brought on by the invasion on 24 February 2022. As of 29 April, 5.5 million refugees have already fled Ukraine, and the number of internally displaced people (IDPs) has reached 7.7 million. Of those who have fled the country, it is estimated that 90 per cent are women and children, while most men aged 18–60 are required to stay behind under martial law. Based on current data from the International Organization for Migration, 60 per cent of the adult internally displaced population are female, while 40 per cent are male. As the crisis quickly evolves, so do the needs and priorities of women and men across Ukraine.This Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA), carried out by UN Women and CARE International, seeks to draw attention to the gender dynamics in the humanitarian crisis resulting from the war in Ukraine. The RGA also proposes recommendations for humanitarian leadership, actors and donors to ensure consideration of the gendered dimensions of risk, vulnerability and capabilities in response to this crisis.The RGA is a progressive publication based on both primary and secondary data sources that compares pre-crisis data with up-to-date information as the situation evolves. This RGA builds upon the RGA Ukraine Brief developed by CARE International during the first week of the war and on the UN Women and CARE RGA published 29 March based on an analysis of secondary data. For this report, the RGA team reviewed English, Ukrainian and Russian sources and interviewed 179 women and men from local communities across Ukraine, as well as representatives from civil society organizations (CSOs), UN agencies and government bodies. Particular effort was made to ensure that the voices of women and men in vulnerable situations and from different marginalized groups were included.

Rapid Gender Analysis of Ukraine: Secondary Data Review

April 5, 2022

Since 24 February 2022, and the invasion of the sovereign territory of Ukraine, there have been devastating effects in the country, including massive civilian displacement and casualties. The number displaced as of 25 March is estimated at 10.2 million. Attacks have taken place across the country, including Kyivska oblast and the capital city of Kyiv, as well as the eastern oblasts of Donetska and Luhanska, which were already affected by conflict.Prior to the recent escalation, modest gains had been made in Ukraine in terms of the advancement of gender equality and women's rights in the country. Much of this is to the credit of an advanced women's rights civil society. Yet these gains were under pressure from deeply entrenched gender discrimination as well as eight years of conflict and displacement and the disproportional socioeconomic impact (including violence against women) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Pre-existing gender and intersectional inequalities worsen during a crisis, and any advances made will be further affected by the current war.This Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) seeks to draw attention to the gender dynamics in the war in Ukraine—both pre-existing and emerging—and draws out recommendations for humanitarian leadership, actors and donors to ensure consideration of the gendered dimensions of risk, vulnerability and capabilities in response and preparedness to this crisis. This RGA is a progressive publication based on secondary data resources both pre-crisis information as well as information that has been released after 24 February. Resources comprise of English, Ukrainian and Russian language sources across humanitarian information sources and media as well as being informed through anecdotal discussions with UN Women partners. The secondary data review was conducted between 14 and 22 March 2022. This RGA builds upon the RGA Ukraine Brief developed by CARE International during the first week of the conflict and will be followed by another publication that will include an analysis of both primary and secondary data.

Enabling Effective and Equitable Marine Protected Areas: Guidance on Combining Governance Approaches

April 4, 2019

Human life depends on the benefits the ocean provides for health, well-being and economic growth. But we are using the ocean's resources faster than they can naturally recover. There is a widening gap between the declining health of the ocean and the growing demand for its benefits. Securing healthy oceans and coasts to contribute to sustainable development requires widespread changes in how we manage our activities in and around coastal and marine areas. The need for change is clear as the impacts of over-exploitation, pollution, coastal development and climate change on oceans and coasts become increasingly visible.Marine protected areas offer one of the best options for maintaining or restoring the health of ocean and coastal ecosystems, particularly when they form part of holistic policy and integrated management systems.Strong governance that influences human behaviour and reduces impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems is essential for marine protected areas to be truly effective. This Guide provides evidence-based advice on how to use the governance of marine protected areas to promote conservation and share sustainable marine resources. It has been developed using 34 marine protected area case studies from around the world. It provides a governance framework and highlights key issues in order to address specific governance situations.The Sustainable Development Goals and targets on oceans recognize the need to combine biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, with a clear role for people and the equitable sharing of costs and benefits.The Guide shows how integrated governance can combine the roles of national governments, local communities, and market schemes to enhance the effectiveness of marine protected areas. There is no "one size fits all" solution. This guidance therefore provides a flexible approach to governance that can be relevant to any marine protected area.The case studies used in the Guide cover a variety of marine protected area types, including no-take, multiple-use, small, large, remote, private, government-led, decentralized and community-led protected areas. They highlight different governance approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented to achieve conservation objectives. Further details can be found in the Case Study Compendium that supports the guide.Global in scope, the guide recognizes the essential aspects of gender, class and ethnicity-related equality as fundamental factors to achieving sustainable development goals and delivering effective and equitable governance of marine protected areas.People who can benefit from this Guide include planners, decision-makers and practitioners engaged in marine protected area development and implementation, or those who have a general interest in protected area governance.Ultimately, governing the oceans in a sustainable way could see marine protected areas as a driver - not a limit - for the vital economic and social benefits that we derive from the global ocean.

Single-Use Plastics: A Roadmap for Sustainability

June 1, 2018

The benefits of plastic are undeniable. The material is cheap, lightweight and easy to make. These qualities have led to a boom in the production of plastic over the past century. This trend will continue as global plastic production skyrockets over the next 10 to 15 years. We are already unable to cope with the amount of plastic waste we generate, unless we rethink the way we manufacture, use and manage plastics. Ultimately, tackling one of the biggest environmental scourges of our time will require governments to regulate, businesses to innovate and individuals to act. This paper sets out the latest thinking on how we can achieve this. It looks at what governments, businesses and individuals have achieved at national and sub-national levels to curb the consumption of single-use plastics. It offers lessons that may be useful for policymakers who are considering regulating the production and use of single-use plastics.

Tackling Childcare: The Business Case for Employer-Supported Childcare

September 1, 2017

Almost one in 10 of the world's population, 679 million, are children younger than five years old. To thrive and develop, these children and their older siblings need care. Yet in many parts of the world, childcare remains scarce. Globally, just over half of the children under age five benefit from a preschool program. Formal childcare is often outside the reach of lowand middle-income employees. For those who can afford it, available options are often limited and poorly aligned with full-time working hours. Access to care is particularly lacking for children younger than three.For employers, the lack of good quality and affordable childcare for their employees can translate into higher turnover and absenteeism, lower productivity, and difficulty recruiting skilled employees. This is because the unavailability or unaffordability of care affects the choices that parents make regarding the type of work that they do, whether they stay at home, or how they combine work with care. For families, gaps in access to quality care can mean less paid working time and lower household incomes.Because women are more likely than men to bear childcare responsibilities, lack of childcare is a major barrier to women's full and equal participation in paid work. According to the International Labour Organization, globally, women's labor force participation rate is just over 49 percent, nearly 27 percentage points lower than the rate for men. A McKinsey Global Institute study estimated that closing gender gaps in economic participation would increase global gross domestic product (GDP) by 26 percent by 2025, adding $12 trillion. Evidence from the Caribbean, Latin America, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries suggests that access to subsidized childcare can have a significant positive impact on women's employment rates and the number of hours that women work.Policymakers internationally are recognizing the importance of access to childcare for both economic and gender equality. To date, 192 nations have signed the Global Goals for Sustainable Development, which include the target, "By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and preprimary education so that they are ready for primary education." In countries such as Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, India, Japan, Jordan, and Turkey, statutes require employers to provide or support childcare. Even when not driven by regulatory compliance, many employers are providing childcare supports as part of their general compensation strategy to achieve better business outcomes. Yet there is a lot more that can be done through partnerships and collaboration between the public and private sectors and civil society organizations.For the International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group and the largest global development institution focused exclusively on the private sector in developing countries, improving access to childcare goes hand in hand with fostering workplace gender diversity and helping parents enter and advance in the workforce while enabling companies to strengthen their bottom line. IFC's focus on removing barriers, such as lack of childcare, to women's (and men's) access to more and better jobs is embedded in the World Bank Group's Gender Strategy and IFC's vision focused on creating markets, particularly in fragile, conflict-affected, and low-income countries. In countries where employer supported childcare is mandatory, IFC is working with its clients to substantiate the business case and to help them go beyond compliance and implement childcare strategies best suited to their business needs, thus resulting in better business results.

Global Ocean Science Report: The Current Status of Ocean Science around the World

January 1, 2017

The IOC-UNESCO Global Ocean Science Report (GOSR) aims to provide a status report on ocean science. It identifies and quantifies the elements that drive the productivity and performance of ocean science, including workforce, infrastructure, resources, networks and outputs. The report is intended to facilitate international ocean science cooperation and collaboration. It helps to identify gaps in science organization and capacity and develop options to optimize the use of scientific resources and advance ocean science and technology by sharing expertise and facilities, promoting capacity-building and transferring marine technology. As the first consolidated assessment of global ocean science, the GOSR assists the science-policy interface and supports managers, policy-makers, governments and donors, as well as scientists beyond the ocean community. The GOSR offers decision-makers an unprecedented tool to identify gaps and opportunities to advance international collaboration in ocean science and technology and harness its potential to meet societal needs, address global challenges and drive sustainable development for all.

Preventing Conflict, Transforming Justice, Securing the Peace: A Global Study on the Implementation of United Nations Security Council resolution 1325

October 14, 2015

To mark the fifteenth anniversary of the adoption of resolution 1325 (2000), the Security Council adopted resolution 2122 (2013) inviting the Secretary-General to conduct a review with regard to the implementation of resolution 1325. The review was to identify the gaps and challenges, as well as emerging trends and priorities for action. It requested the SecretaryGeneral to thereafter submit a report based on the findings of this review to the Security Council in October 2015. The Secretary-General requested Radhika Coomaraswamy to be the lead author of the study on the recommendation of the United Nations Standing Committee on Women, Peace and Security. UN Women was requested to be the secretariat of the study. A High-Level Advisory Group was constituted from all regions of the world to assist Ms. Coomaraswamy

Prévenir les Conflits Transformer la Justice Obtenir la Paix: Étude mondiale sur la mise en œuvre de la résolution 1325 du Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies

October 14, 2015

To mark the fifteenth anniversary of the adoption of resolution 1325 (2000), the Security Council adopted resolution 2122 (2013) inviting the Secretary-General to conduct a review with regard to the implementation of resolution 1325. The review was to identify the gaps and challenges, as well as emerging trends and priorities for action. It requested the SecretaryGeneral to thereafter submit a report based on the findings of this review to the Security Council in October 2015. The Secretary-General requested Radhika Coomaraswamy to be the lead author of the study on the recommendation of the United Nations Standing Committee on Women, Peace and Security. UN Women was requested to be the secretariat of the study. A High-Level Advisory Group was constituted from all regions of the world to assist Ms. Coomaraswamy.

Preventing Conflict, Transforming Justice, Securing the Peace: A Global Study on the Implementation of United Nations Security Council resolution 1325, Arabic

October 14, 2015

To mark the fifteenth anniversary of the adoption of resolution 1325 (2000), the Security Council adopted resolution 2122 (2013) inviting the Secretary-General to conduct a review with regard to the implementation of resolution 1325. The review was to identify the gaps and challenges, as well as emerging trends and priorities for action. It requested the SecretaryGeneral to thereafter submit a report based on the findings of this review to the Security Council in October 2015. The Secretary-General requested Radhika Coomaraswamy to be the lead author of the study on the recommendation of the United Nations Standing Committee on Women, Peace and Security. UN Women was requested to be the secretariat of the study. A High-Level Advisory Group was constituted from all regions of the world to assist Ms. Coomaraswamy.

Prevenir los Conflictos Transformar la Justicia Garantizar la Paz: Estudio mundial sobre la aplicación de la resolución 1325 del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas

October 14, 2015

To mark the fifteenth anniversary of the adoption of resolution 1325 (2000), the Security Council adopted resolution 2122 (2013) inviting the Secretary-General to conduct a review with regard to the implementation of resolution 1325. The review was to identify the gaps and challenges, as well as emerging trends and priorities for action. It requested the SecretaryGeneral to thereafter submit a report based on the findings of this review to the Security Council in October 2015. The Secretary-General requested Radhika Coomaraswamy to be the lead author of the study on the recommendation of the United Nations Standing Committee on Women, Peace and Security. UN Women was requested to be the secretariat of the study. A High-Level Advisory Group was constituted from all regions of the world to assist Ms. Coomaraswamy.