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EVERYTHING COUNTS: Building a Control Regime for Nonstrategic Nuclear Warheads in Europe

May 10, 2022

Before the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the Biden administration insisted in arms control talks with Russia that a follow-on agreement to the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) should cover all nuclear weapons and that such an agreement should focus on the nuclear warheads themselves. This would represent a significant change from previous agreements, which focused on delivery vehicles, such as missiles. The United States has been particularly interested in potential limits on nonstrategic nuclear warheads (NSNW). Such weapons have never been subject to an arms control agreement. Because Russia possesses an advantage in the number of such weapons, the US Senate has insisted that negotiators include them in a future agreement, making their inclusion necessary if such an accord is to win Senate approval and ultimately be ratified by Washington. In the wake of Russian nuclear threats in the Ukraine conflict, such demands can only be expected to grow if and when US and Russian negotiators return to the negotiating table.

Ocean Pollutants Guide: Toxic Threats to Human Health and Marine Life

October 1, 2018

Marine pollutants are impacting the health of our oceans, their inhabitants and those dependent on oceans for food, culture and their very survival. Everyday an ever-increasing cocktail of intentional and unintentional chemical releases, as well as an unrelenting tidal wave of wastes, particularly plastic waste, enters our waterways and the marine environment.Ocean pollutants include persistent organic pollutants (POPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), mercury and heavy metal compounds, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, oil, plastic wastes and their related chemicals (e.g., BPA, phthalates), personal care products and other industrial and agricultural emissions. We are only just becoming aware of the identity, volume and scope of many ocean pollutants. Their hazards and complex ecological interactions are still unknown.Many ocean pollutants do not have human health data or environmental fate information, and our understanding of the long-term impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the reproduction and behaviour of fish and other marine organisms is still in its infancy.Chemicals enter the marine environment via atmospheric transport, runoff into waterways or by direct disposal into the ocean. It is estimated that 80% of marine chemical pollution originates on land. The vast majority of the global land surface is connected to the marine environment via river systems, so chemical and plastics pollution of rivers is inextricably linked with ocean pollution.

Tackling Childcare: The Business Case for Employer-Supported Childcare

September 1, 2017

Almost one in 10 of the world's population, 679 million, are children younger than five years old. To thrive and develop, these children and their older siblings need care. Yet in many parts of the world, childcare remains scarce. Globally, just over half of the children under age five benefit from a preschool program. Formal childcare is often outside the reach of lowand middle-income employees. For those who can afford it, available options are often limited and poorly aligned with full-time working hours. Access to care is particularly lacking for children younger than three.For employers, the lack of good quality and affordable childcare for their employees can translate into higher turnover and absenteeism, lower productivity, and difficulty recruiting skilled employees. This is because the unavailability or unaffordability of care affects the choices that parents make regarding the type of work that they do, whether they stay at home, or how they combine work with care. For families, gaps in access to quality care can mean less paid working time and lower household incomes.Because women are more likely than men to bear childcare responsibilities, lack of childcare is a major barrier to women's full and equal participation in paid work. According to the International Labour Organization, globally, women's labor force participation rate is just over 49 percent, nearly 27 percentage points lower than the rate for men. A McKinsey Global Institute study estimated that closing gender gaps in economic participation would increase global gross domestic product (GDP) by 26 percent by 2025, adding $12 trillion. Evidence from the Caribbean, Latin America, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries suggests that access to subsidized childcare can have a significant positive impact on women's employment rates and the number of hours that women work.Policymakers internationally are recognizing the importance of access to childcare for both economic and gender equality. To date, 192 nations have signed the Global Goals for Sustainable Development, which include the target, "By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and preprimary education so that they are ready for primary education." In countries such as Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, India, Japan, Jordan, and Turkey, statutes require employers to provide or support childcare. Even when not driven by regulatory compliance, many employers are providing childcare supports as part of their general compensation strategy to achieve better business outcomes. Yet there is a lot more that can be done through partnerships and collaboration between the public and private sectors and civil society organizations.For the International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group and the largest global development institution focused exclusively on the private sector in developing countries, improving access to childcare goes hand in hand with fostering workplace gender diversity and helping parents enter and advance in the workforce while enabling companies to strengthen their bottom line. IFC's focus on removing barriers, such as lack of childcare, to women's (and men's) access to more and better jobs is embedded in the World Bank Group's Gender Strategy and IFC's vision focused on creating markets, particularly in fragile, conflict-affected, and low-income countries. In countries where employer supported childcare is mandatory, IFC is working with its clients to substantiate the business case and to help them go beyond compliance and implement childcare strategies best suited to their business needs, thus resulting in better business results.

Preventing Conflict, Transforming Justice, Securing the Peace: A Global Study on the Implementation of United Nations Security Council resolution 1325

October 14, 2015

To mark the fifteenth anniversary of the adoption of resolution 1325 (2000), the Security Council adopted resolution 2122 (2013) inviting the Secretary-General to conduct a review with regard to the implementation of resolution 1325. The review was to identify the gaps and challenges, as well as emerging trends and priorities for action. It requested the SecretaryGeneral to thereafter submit a report based on the findings of this review to the Security Council in October 2015. The Secretary-General requested Radhika Coomaraswamy to be the lead author of the study on the recommendation of the United Nations Standing Committee on Women, Peace and Security. UN Women was requested to be the secretariat of the study. A High-Level Advisory Group was constituted from all regions of the world to assist Ms. Coomaraswamy

Prévenir les Conflits Transformer la Justice Obtenir la Paix: Étude mondiale sur la mise en œuvre de la résolution 1325 du Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies

October 14, 2015

To mark the fifteenth anniversary of the adoption of resolution 1325 (2000), the Security Council adopted resolution 2122 (2013) inviting the Secretary-General to conduct a review with regard to the implementation of resolution 1325. The review was to identify the gaps and challenges, as well as emerging trends and priorities for action. It requested the SecretaryGeneral to thereafter submit a report based on the findings of this review to the Security Council in October 2015. The Secretary-General requested Radhika Coomaraswamy to be the lead author of the study on the recommendation of the United Nations Standing Committee on Women, Peace and Security. UN Women was requested to be the secretariat of the study. A High-Level Advisory Group was constituted from all regions of the world to assist Ms. Coomaraswamy.

Preventing Conflict, Transforming Justice, Securing the Peace: A Global Study on the Implementation of United Nations Security Council resolution 1325, Arabic

October 14, 2015

To mark the fifteenth anniversary of the adoption of resolution 1325 (2000), the Security Council adopted resolution 2122 (2013) inviting the Secretary-General to conduct a review with regard to the implementation of resolution 1325. The review was to identify the gaps and challenges, as well as emerging trends and priorities for action. It requested the SecretaryGeneral to thereafter submit a report based on the findings of this review to the Security Council in October 2015. The Secretary-General requested Radhika Coomaraswamy to be the lead author of the study on the recommendation of the United Nations Standing Committee on Women, Peace and Security. UN Women was requested to be the secretariat of the study. A High-Level Advisory Group was constituted from all regions of the world to assist Ms. Coomaraswamy.

Prevenir los Conflictos Transformar la Justicia Garantizar la Paz: Estudio mundial sobre la aplicación de la resolución 1325 del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas

October 14, 2015

To mark the fifteenth anniversary of the adoption of resolution 1325 (2000), the Security Council adopted resolution 2122 (2013) inviting the Secretary-General to conduct a review with regard to the implementation of resolution 1325. The review was to identify the gaps and challenges, as well as emerging trends and priorities for action. It requested the SecretaryGeneral to thereafter submit a report based on the findings of this review to the Security Council in October 2015. The Secretary-General requested Radhika Coomaraswamy to be the lead author of the study on the recommendation of the United Nations Standing Committee on Women, Peace and Security. UN Women was requested to be the secretariat of the study. A High-Level Advisory Group was constituted from all regions of the world to assist Ms. Coomaraswamy.