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The Impact of Probation and Parole Populations on Arrests in Four California Cities

January 22, 2013

On January 22, 2013 the Council of State Governments Justice Center released The Impact of Probation and Parole Populations on Arrests in Four California Cities. The unprecedented study answers one question that to date has been a matter of speculation among law enforcement and corrections officials everywhere: to what extent do people on parole and probation contribute to overall crime rates?The Chiefs of the Los Angeles, Redlands, Sacramento, and San Francisco Police Departments commissioned the analysis in 2010. Collecting and analyzing the data required an extraordinary effort spanning 11 independent agencies, including four local police jurisdictions, county law enforcement and probation agencies, two county sheriffs' departments and the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR). Researchers at the CSG Justice Center collected and matched more than 2.5 million arrest, parole, and probation records generated between January 1, 2008 and June 11, 2011.Among the most notable findings in these four jurisdictions:The majority of all adult felony and misdemeanor arrests were of people who were not currently under supervision. People under supervision accounted for only 22 percent of total arrests.Whereas people under probation and parole supervision accounted for one out of every six arrests for violent crimes, they accounted for one out of every three drug arrests.During a 3.5 year period in which total arrests fell by 18 percent, the number of arrests involving individuals under parole supervision declined by 61 percent and by 26 percent for individuals under probation supervision.

State Trends: Legislative Victories From 2005 to 2010 Removing Youth From the Adult Criminal Justice System

March 24, 2011

Explains the costs to youth, public safety, community prosperity, and states of prosecuting children as adults. Outlines trends in state laws aimed at removing youth from the adult criminal justice system and restructuring the juvenile justice system.

Healing Invisible Wounds: Why Investing in Trauma-Informed Care for Children Makes Sense

July 10, 2010

Examines research on the effects of childhood trauma on development and its impact on youth involvement in the juvenile and criminal justice systems. Outlines the need for better reporting, screening, and evidence-based treatments and interventions.

Gang Wars: The Failure of Enforcement Tactics

July 1, 2007

This report attempts to clarify some of the persistent misconceptions about gangs and to assess the successes and failures of approaches that have been employed to respond to gangs. We undertook an extensive review of the research literature on gangs because we believe that the costs of uninformed policy making -- including thousands of lives lost to violence or imprisonment -- are simply too high.

Cost-effective Youth Corrections: Rationalizing the Fiscal Architecture of Juvenile Justice Systems

March 1, 2006

Locked confinement in a state institution is more expensive, sometimes running in excess of $60,000 annually compared to $10,000 or less for community supervision or services. In the 51 distinct juvenile justice systems that constitute how young people are treated in America's justice system, it is sometimes cheaper for localities in some states and jurisdictions to send youth to state institutions than it is for communities to develop services to treat youth close to home. Such a financial architecture can lead to undesirable results. Counties often lack the financial means or incentive to expand local programs or services, so fewer of these options exist for youth than the demand would otherwise necessitate. Without local programs or services, judges may have little choice but to send youth convicted of marginal offenses to distant, locked facilities. As a result, youth have been locked in the state system simply because there was nowhere for them to go locally -- and no easy way to pay for those services.