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Rapid Climate-Driven Circulation Changes Threaten Conservation of Endangered North Atlantic Right Whales

May 3, 2019

As climate trends accelerate, ecosystems will be pushed rapidly into new states, reducing the potential efficacy of conservation strategies based on historical patterns. In the Gulf of Maine, climate-driven changes have restructured the ecosystem rapidly over the past decade. Changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation have altered deepwater dynamics, driving warming rates twice as high as the fastest surface rates. This has had implications for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, a critical food supply for the endangered North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). The oceanographic changes have driven a deviation in the seasonal foraging patterns of E. glacialis upon which conservation strategies depend, making the whales more vulnerable to ship strikes and gear entanglements. The effects of rapid climate-driven changes on a species at risk undermine current management approaches.

Carbon Free Boston: Social Equity Report 2019

January 1, 2019

This Carbon Free Boston: Social Equity Report provides a deeper equity context for Carbon Free Boston as a whole, and for each strategy area, by demonstrating how inequitable and unjust the playing field is for socially vulnerable Bostonians and why equity must be integrated into policy design and implementation. This report summarizes the current landscape of climate action work for each strategy area and evaluates how it currently impacts inequity. Finally, this report provides guidance to the City and partners on how to do better; it lays out the attributes of an equitable approach to carbon-neutrality, framed around three guiding principles:1) plan carefully to avoid unintended consequences2) be intentional in design through a clear equity lens3) practice inclusivity from start to finish.

Carbon Free Boston: Summary Report 2019

January 1, 2019

Carbon Free Boston was developed through comprehensive engagement with City staff, utilities, neighboring municipalities, regional authorities, state agencies, industry experts, and community representatives, among others, and was supported by comprehensive analysis using models that project feasible pathways to carbon neutrality by 2050. To ensure meaningful and actionable outcomes, we looked across scales and considered opportunities and challenges associated with specific actions at the city, state, and regional levels. We also addressed disparities in communities' capacity both to mitigate climate damages and to benefit from the transition to a carbon-neutral city.Supporting technical reports and other resources are also available on the project web site:

Breast Milk is Best for Premature Babies

December 14, 2016

Babies born very early usually need to stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. The best food to give your baby is your breast milk. At first your baby may not be strong enough to breastfeed, but you can use a breast pump to collect all the milk your baby needs. Babies can get breast milk from a cotton swab, through a feeding tube that goes from the nose or mouth into the stomach, or from a bottle.

Making Breast Milk When Your Baby is Premature

December 14, 2016

Babies born very early usually need to stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. Your breast milk is a medicine and a food for your baby. It is important to start making breast milk as soon as possible after birth. The sooner you start, the more milk you will make for your baby.

Breastfeeding your Premature Baby in the Hospital and at Home

December 14, 2016

Babies born very early need to stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. While they are there, they will start learning to breastfeed, and they will continue to learn even after they go home.

Skin-to-Skin Care for Your Premature Baby

December 14, 2016

Babies born very early usually need to stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. You can stay close to your baby by doing skin-to-skin or "kangaroo" care. Holding your baby skin-to-skin is healthy for your baby and you!