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2023 Edition - California Health Care Spending

March 14, 2023

For the first time since 2017, the federal government has released health care spending data by state. The data, available for 1991 to 2020, cover spending on personal health care (PHC), which includes goods and services, such as hospital care, physician services, and prescription drugs, but excludes the net cost of health insurance, government administration, public health activities, and investment.In 2020, California PHC spending totaled $405 billion and accounted for 12% of total US PHC spending. On a per capita basis, California health care spending ($10,299) surpassed the US average ($10,191) for the first time since 1991.Between 2010 and 2020, health care spending in California grew faster on an annual average basis than health spending in the US and the economic growth in the state.

Making the Grade 2022: How Fair Is School Funding in Your State?

December 13, 2022

Making the Grade provides an annual overview of the condition of school finance in the states. The data in this edition gives a picture of states' investment in their public school systems in the 2019-20 school year, the historic moment when public education, and society at large, experienced the massive disruption brought on by a worldwide public health crisis.

The Older Workers and Retirement Chartbook

November 16, 2022

The Older Workers and Retirement Chartbook shows the risks to retirement security and disparities in retirement preparedness, and explores the links between labor market challenges facing older workers and retirement insecurity.Updated February 9, 2023The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated the plight of many older U.S. workers who cannot afford to retire yet are stuck in bad jobs or forced to leave the labor force before they're ready.The Older Workers and Retirement Chartbook from the Economic Policy Institute and the Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis documents the risks and disparities in retirement preparedness among demographic groups. It offers a comprehensive look at the connections between labor market challenges facing older workers and retirement insecurity, using 33 charts to bring light to the problem.Before the COVID-19 pandemic, 4 in 10 Americans 55 and older were in the labor force, their highest participation rate in a half-century, the chartbook finds. The upward trend in labor force participation in recent decades reflects in part greater opportunities for older workers who want to keep working—but it also reflects retirement insecurity among some workers. The authors document how many older workers who cannot afford to retire face diminishing job quality and earnings due to a loss of bargaining power."Workers may work longer to close the retirement income gap, but this is neither a fair nor a realistic solution to a broken retirement system," says Monique Morrissey, EPI economist and co-author of the report. "Policy choices have weakened unions, eroded the real value of the minimum wage, and allowed employers to shift more responsibility for retirement onto workers. These all contribute to older workers' declining bargaining power."Black, Hispanic, women, disabled, and LGBTQ workers are at greater risk of hardship at older ages because of systemic problems. Black and Hispanic workers are more likely to lack access to retirement plans or have access to less generous plans. Lower lifetime earnings make it harder for workers of color, women, and people with disabilities to save for retirement. Women's greater caregiving responsibilities and longer life spans also put them at higher risk of old-age poverty despite closing the retirement plan coverage gap with men. LGBTQ seniors face adverse effects of past and present discrimination, including less access to spousal benefits."Everyone faces significant risks as they age, even well-off Americans," explains report co-author Siavash Radpour. "It is unrealistic to expect all older workers to save enough to guard against the possibility of losing their jobs, retiring during a market downturn, being widowed or divorced, or incurring expensive medical or long-term care needs."The authors outline several targeted policies that can improve the lives of older workers, including:Enforcing age discrimination laws;Expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit to help more adults without dependent children;Lowering employer health care costs for older workers;Changing performance metrics used to evaluate training programs that lead them to favor enrolling younger workers;Creating a dedicated Older Workers Bureau in the Department of Labor to help identify and address challenges facing older workers.But targeted policies are only one part of the solution. "Retirement insecurity comes from systemic problems, and these require systemic solutions," Barbara Schuster, co-author of the chartbook, explains. "Improving working conditions for all workers is vitally important, as is strengthening social insurance programs that offer critical protections."Broader policies include:Pursuing full-employment macroeconomic policies;Protecting workers' right to collectively bargain for better wages and working conditions;Raising the minimum wage;Enacting paid leave and scheduling policies to ensure workers can take time to care for themselves and their families;Increasing caregiver supports;Fixing the patchwork unemployment system;Better protecting workers from injury and illness;Expanding and removing barriers to accessing Social Security and SSI benefits;Ensuring access to affordable health care and long-term care.

Price of Care: 2021 Child Care Affordability

October 13, 2022

Child care prices remain high. At a time when prices for a number of goods have increased, child care prices continued to outpace inflation in 2021, according to CCAoA's Child Care Affordability Analysis.  This is bad news for families, who struggle to afford child care. This is also bad news for employers and communities, who benefit from widespread access to affordable, high-quality child care. Unfortunately, past public investments have not been enough to fully support the system and have created a precarious situation for child care, one that relies heavily on families to foot the bill. While recent investments in response to the COVID-19 pandemic may have helped to stabilize some of the supply of child care, the system and the families it serves are still fighting toward thriving. Women have been particularly hard hit by the lack of affordable child care. Recent findings from the RAPID-EC survey indicate that 40% of female respondents had left their jobs or cut back on their work schedules – most of them due to child care constraints. When families don't have access to affordable, high-quality child care, children miss out on important child development opportunities, employers face losses as they struggle to find workers, and our economy sees overall challenges.CCAoA's Child Care Affordability Analysis found that in 2021:  The national average price of child care was around $10,600 annually. This would comprise 10% of a married-couple family's average annual income and 35% of a single parent's income.  The increase in child care prices slightly outpaced inflation, which was much higher than the inflation rate in prior years.  In most states, the price of child care for two children exceeded annual housing payments by 28% to over 100%. Similarly, the price of child care for an infant in a center exceeded annual in-state tuition at a public university in 34 states.  Child care for two children in a center would cost a child care workforce professional anywhere from 56% to over 100% of annual income.  Child care was more expensive than most other household expenses such as housing and health care in all U.S. regions. 

FRA LGBTI Survey II (2019) data disaggregation

August 1, 2022

This document is a compilation of all of the data extracted from the 2019 FRA LGBTI II Survey in a project conducted by ILGA-Europe and Transgender Europe. The extraction project ran from August 2021 to August 2022. The purpose of this project was to build on the report by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Right (FRA), A long way to go to LGBTI equality1 , by investigating in more detail different groups of LGBTI people, particularly those exposed to intersectional marginalisation. The statistics used to write this brief come from the 2019 FRA LGBTI II Survey. The survey was open to individuals who were 15 years of age or older who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and/or intersex. The survey was conducted online in 27 EU Member States, the UK, Serbia and North Macedonia between May and July of 2019. The respondents were asked a series of questions about their lived experiences, including information about their experiences of discrimination, harassment, violence, openness about their sexual orientation, gender identity, and sex characteristics, experiences in education and at work, their relationships and parenting, health, housing difficulties, living conditions and socio-economic status. The project sought to disaggregate responses of different groups of LGBTI people for comparison with one another and with the larger respondent population, and to make these data available for advocacy and policy efforts in the EU region.

Individual Giving and Philanthropy in Turkey 2021

May 31, 2022

This study is a continuation of the research on individual giving and philanthropy in Turkey conducted in 2004, 2015 and 2019 by TÜSEV. The main goals of this research are to provide an overview of: individuals' perceptions of civil society organisations in Turkey; their engagement with CSOs; giving practices, and to track behaviors and trends in these areas through time. For this study as for previous ones, the authors and research team have collected and analysed data from interviews with a representative sample of the voting-age population in Turkey. The fieldwork for this report focused on the year before October-November 2021, a period of significant challenges including Covid-19, lockdowns and natural disasters. The authors take into account the impact of these events in their evaluation of how both the giving behavior and the attitude toward civil society and philanthropic activities in general have developed and changed. The report also provides a comparative analysis of the change that took place in the field of individual giving in Turkey over a 15-year period.Previous studies can be accessed from TÜSEV website:

Global Data Barometer

May 4, 2022

The Barometer is a multi-dimensional and multi-layered study that assessed the state of data for public good in 109 countries. An expert survey was conducted from May 2019 – May 2021 to create a new global benchmark that looks at data governance, capability, availability, and use and impact of data for public good. You may explore and view the data, through its core (e.g. governance and capability) or thematic modules (e.g. climate action, land, public procurement) as well as on a country-level.

The Brookings Sanctions Tracker

March 14, 2022

The world's democracies are employing financial and economic countermeasures in the fight against Russia's invasion of Ukraine on Feb. 24. The extent of these sanctions is staggering. To analyze the scope and potential impact of these sanctions, it is essential to systematically monitor and track them—which is why we are launching the Brookings Sanctions Tracker.  Our goal is for this tracker to serve as a timely and user-friendly tool for civil society organizations, policymakers, and others who seek to analyze the current landscape of specific restrictive measures imposed against Russia (both on an individual nation basis and across the international community), generate analysis on trends and gaps, and inform recommendations on how to combat corruption, advance accountability, and defend democracy.  

Making the Grade 2021: How Fair is School Funding in Your State?

January 3, 2022

Making the Grade analyzes the condition of public school funding in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Using the most recently available data from the 2018-19 school year, the report ranks and grades each state on three measures to answer the key question: How fair is school funding in your state?

States with Lower Gun Ownership and Strong Gun Laws Have Lowest Suicide Rates (2021)

September 8, 2021

Released during National Suicide Prevention Awareness Month, this report dataset presents overall suicide as well as gun suicides rates state by state, revealing the decisive role played by firearms in suicide attempts. The analysis identified the three states with the highest and lowest overall suicide rates in 2019 and included for each state its gun suicide rate, total number of suicides and gun suicides, percentage of suicides that involved a gun, and household gun ownership.

Improving Access to Palliative Care Special Collection (Archived)

August 4, 2021

The Improving Access to Palliative Care Special Collection was available as a searchable online collection from 2014 until 2021. This collection was made possible by The Atlantic Philanthropies. A bibliography detailing the contents of the collection follows this archive description. Titles continue to be accessible via date: August 4, 2021Collection title: Improving Access to Palliative Care Special CollectionCollection URL: https://palliativecare.issuelab.orgAvailability: 2014-2021Title count: 119 titlesCreator: IssueLab, a service of Foundation CenterDescription: Will you get the care you need when you face a serious illness? It depends on who you are and where you live. This collection brings together evidence and insights about the millions of people worldwide who are denied access to palliative care and what organizations are doing to help them.Themes:"Who Is Affected?" - People with Addictions; People with Cancer; People with Chronic Illness; People with Dementia; People at the End of Life; People with HIV/AIDS; People with Mental Illness; People in Pain; People Living in Underserved Countries; People Living in Underserved Regions; People Living in Rural Communities; People in an Assisted Living Facility; People in a Community-based Care Setting; People in an Elderly Care Facility; People in a Home-based Care Setting; People in a Homeless Shelter; People in Hospice; People in a Hospital; People in Prison; People with a Disability"What Are Common Barriers?" - Racial and Ethnic Discrimination; Gender and Sexuality Discrimination; Age Discrimination; Cultural & Religious Discrimination; Illiteracy; Lack of Legal Recognition; Language Barriers; Medical Staff Discrimination/Ignorance; Drug Costs; Inadequate Funding; Payment Structures; Poverty; Eligibility Criteria; Time Limits on Care; Distance to Services; Drug Availability; Insufficient Palliative Care Staff/Physicians; Lack of Facilities/Beds; Lack of Medical Equipment; Lack of Psychosocial Care; Lack of Coordination Between Providers; Lack of Government Coordination; Lack of Referrals or Late Referrals; Limited Patient Data Tracking Systems; Overly Restrictive Drug Policies/Laws; Fear of Addiction; Lack of Knowledge About Palliative Care Options; Lack of Understanding About Conditions; Poor Communication Between Providers & Patients"What Are Some Recommended Solutions?" - Additional Research on Attitudes Towards Palliative Care; Additional Research on Models of Care; Additional Research on Needs of Specific Communities or Populations; Additional Research on the Value of Hospice and Palliative Care; Bereavement Support; Caregiver Support and Engagement; Greater Availability of Pain-relief Drugs; Psychosocial Support; Alternative Payment Structures; Community Education About the Need for Advanced Care Planning; Greater Trust and Awareness Through Existing Leaders; Increased Community Awareness About Palliative Care Options; Cultural Brokerage Services; Staff with Similar Demographics as Clients; Translation Services; Better Tracking of Patient Data and Preferences; Greater Knowledge Sharing; Stronger Referral Networks and Systems; Greater Community Engagement and Partnership; Greater Coordination Between Providers; Integration into Community-based Settings; Integration Into Disease Control Strategies; Integration Into Home-care Systems; National Palliative Care Policies; Recognition of Legal Rights of Specific Populations; Recognition of Palliative Care as a Human Right; Reform of Drug Control Regulations; Palliative Care Training for Medical Staff; Train Staff in Culturally Sensitive Care

OER Research Special Collection (Archived)

August 3, 2021

The OER (Open Education Resources) Research Special Collection was available as a searchable online collection from 2008 until 2021. This document includes a bibliography detailing the contents of the collection. Titles continue to be accessible via date: August 3, 2021Collection title: OER Research Special CollectionCollection URL: https://oer.issuelab.orgAvailability: 2008-2021Title count: 70 titlesCreator: IssueLab, a service of Foundation CenterPhoto credit: "Reflections on the new Machine Age — technology, inequality and the economy" (  by Steve Jurvetson ( licensed under CC BY 2.0.Description: The body of work collected here represents the combined efforts of organizations worldwide. As the Open Educational Resources movement has grown, so has the body of research being produced on the topic. We invite you to engage with the new discoveries and analyses that this collection has to offer.Collection Themes: Case Studies; Evaluations; General - Open Access; Intellectual Property and Digital Rights; Open Access Textbooks; Presentations; Simulations; Surveys