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Academic and Architectural Modernization for Development: Financial and Technical Assistance to the University of Concepción, Chile, 1956–1968

March 16, 2023

The following research is part of my ongoing dissertation project, which examines the planning, design, and construction of university campuses vis-à-vis the intensification of mining and oil extraction in South America between 1945 and 1975. In this report, I offer a brief overview of the technical and financial assistance that the Ford Foundation (FF), the Rockefeller Foundation (RF), and the UN Special Fund (UNSF) gave to one of my case studies, the Universidad de Concepción (UdeC), located in mineral-rich Chile. Multiple holdings at the Rockefeller Archive Center (RAC) reveal that these organizations provided significant aid to the UdeC between 1956 and 1968—a critical period during which the technical and financial assistance programs of the US became entangled with a national developmentalist agenda that tied scientific and engineering education to economic development. The RAC holdings I explore are extremely useful in understanding the geopolitical and economic context that shaped these aid programs, the UdeC's modernization efforts, and the agendas of the multiple actors involved in this process. The textual and visual documents I analyze also underscore the critical role that modern architecture played in all of this as an enabler of the academic reform and the economic transformation of the region, and as a persuasive signifier of "development."

Exploring Safe Abortion Activism Through the Experiences and Stories of Feminist Members of Latin American Accompaniment Networks

July 1, 2022

Feminist networks of abortion accompaniers have been carrying out sustained activism in Latin America for decades. This research project intends to examine this form of abortion rights activism; to listen and learn about the people supporting and shouldering these processes in the region; to understand their stories, paths, and journeys; and to recognize how the personal needs of activists impact the ways in which this type of abortion rights activism takes shape. Further, this study aims to learn about activists' motivations to partake in accompaniment; the impact their activism has had in the different parts of their lives, such as in their interpersonal relationships, their work, and their community spaces; their own experiences with abortion care and the decision-making processes behind themw; and how all these factors combined influence their hopes for and views on abortion care and a more just future.

Ending Street Homelessness in Vanguard Cities Across the Globe: An International Comparative Study

April 5, 2022

Street homelessness is one of the most extreme, and visible, manifestations of profound injustice on the planet, but often struggles to achieve priority attention at international level. The Institute of Global Homelessness (IGH's) A Place to Call Home initiative, launched in 2017, represented a concerted effort to support cities across the globe to eradicate street homelessness. A first cohort of 13 'Vanguard Cities' committed to a specific target on ending or reducing street homelessness by December 2020. Our independent evaluation of this initiative found that:Two Vanguard Cities – Glasgow and Sydney – fully met their self-defined target reductions for end 2020. In addition, Greater Manchester, while it did not meet its exceptionally ambitious goal of 'ending all rough sleeping', recorded an impressive 52% reduction against baseline.Overall, there was evidence of reductions in targeted aspects of street homelessness in over half of the Vanguard Cities. In most of the remaining cities data limitations, sometimes as a result of COVID, meant that it was not possible to determine trends. In only one Vanguard City – Edmonton – was there an evidenced increase in street homelessness over baseline levels.Key enablers of progress in reducing street homelessness included the presence of a lead coordinating agency, and coordinated entry to homelessness services, alongside investment in specialized and evidence-based interventions, such as assertive street outreach services, individual case management and Housing First.Key barriers to progress included heavy reliance on undignified and sometimes unsafe communal shelters, a preoccupation with meeting immediate physiological needs, and sometimes perceived spiritual needs, rather than structural and system change, and a lack of emphasis on prevention. Aggressive enforcement interventions by police and city authorities, and documentary and identification barriers, were also counter-productive to attempts to reduce street homelessness.A key contextual variable between the Vanguard Cities was political will, with success in driving down street homelessness associated with high-level political commitments. An absolute lack of funds was a major challenge in all of the Global South cities, but also in resource-poor settings in the Global North. Almost all Vanguard Cities cited pressures on the affordable housing stock as a key barrier to progress, but local lettings and other policies could make a real difference.The impact of the COVID-19 crisis differed markedly across the Vanguard Cities, with people at risk of street homelessness most effectively protected in the UK and Australian cities. Responses were less inclusive and ambitious in the North American and Global South cities, with more continued use of 'shared air' shelters, albeit that in some of these contexts the pandemic prompted better coordination of local efforts to address street homelessness.IGH involvement was viewed as instrumental in enhancing the local profile, momentum and level of ambition attached to reducing street homelessness in the Vanguard Cities. IGH's added value to future cohorts of cities could be maximised via a focus on more tailored forms of support specific to the needs of each city, and also to different types of stakeholders, particularly frontline workers.

Hacia un nuevo marco legal para las donaciones en Chile: análisis comparado entre Chile, América Latina, OCDE

May 19, 2020

El presente estudio revisa la legislación de Chile en comparación con países con alto nivel de desarrollo de filantropía miembros de la OCDE y países de América Latina. A la luz del diagnóstico que existe respecto de las dificultades que plantea el marco legal chileno, disperso en múltiples legislaciones incongruentes entre ellas, este estudio permite comprender cómo estos diferentes países tratan elementos fundamentales de un marco legal que facilite el desarrollo de la filantropía. Así, en esta publicación es posible vislumbrar cómo los países han avanzado hacia marcos legales integrados en una Ley General de Filantropía, donde el criterio de bien público es central para determinar las instituciones donatarias y otorgar beneficios tributarios, donde se facilita la donación de la herencia y la constitución de endowments y donde la transparencia permite no sólo construir confianza entre los actores, sino también de cara a la opinión pública. El estudio revisa estos temas, destaca distintos casos y propone una serie de recomendaciones para modernizar el marco legal chileno, a partir de las lecciones derivadas del análisis comparativo tanto de países que cuentan con una práctica filantrópica robusta como de países de la región con un ethos histórico cultural y económico compartido.

Predicting City Poverty Using Satellite Imagery

June 16, 2019

Reliable data about socio-economic conditions of individuals, such as health indexes, consumption expenditures and wealth assets, remain scarce for most countries. Traditional methods to collect such data include on site surveys that can be expensive and labour intensive. On the other hand, remote sensing data, such as high-resolution satellite imagery, are becoming largely available. To circumvent the lack of socio-economic data at high granularity, computer vision has already been applied successfully to raw satellite imagery sampled from resource poor countries.In this work we apply a similar approach to the metropolitan areas of five different cities in North and South America, starting from pre-trained convolutional models used for poverty mapping in developing regions. Applying a transfer learning process we estimate household income from visual satellite features. The urban environment we consider is characterized by different features with respect to the resource-poor training environment, such as the high heterogeneity in population density. By leveraging both official and crowd-sourced data at city scale, we show the feasibility of estimating the socio-economic conditions of different neighborhoods from satellite data.

Scaling participation in payments for ecosystem services programs

March 9, 2018

Payments for ecosystem services programs have become common tools but most have failed to achieve wide-ranging conservation outcomes. The capacity for scale and impact increases when PES programs are designed through the lens of the potential participants, yet this has received little attention in research or practice. Our work with small-scale marine fisheries integrates the social science of PES programs and provides a framework for designing programs that focus a priori on scaling. In addition to payments, desirable non-monetary program attributes and ecological feedbacks attract a wider range of potential participants into PES programs, including those who have more negative attitudes and lower trust. Designing programs that draw individuals into participating in PES programs is likely the most strategic path to reaching scale. Research should engage in new models of participatory research to understand these dynamics and to design programs that explicitly integrate a broad range of needs, values, and modes of implementation.

Filantropía Institucional en Chile

April 30, 2017

Parte del Mapeo de Filantropía e Inversiones Sociales, este estudio caracteriza la filantropía que se canaliza a través de la estructura de fundaciones que cuentan con un gobierno y administración propia, y una fuente de recursos estables para destinar a inversión social. El estudio entrega datos sobre el tipo de fundaciones filantrópicas en Chile, sus inversiones, beneficiarios y prácticas de administración. El CEFIS UAI ha realizado este proyecto en colaboración con investigadores de Harvard Kennedy School, a través del Global Philanthropy Report, lo que permite contar con una perspectiva global de la filantropía institucional en Chile.

Social Media in Northern Chile

June 7, 2016

Based on 15 months of ethnographic research in the city of Alto Hospicio in northern Chile, this book describes how the residents use social media, and the consequences of this use in their daily lives. Nell Haynes argues that social media is a place where Alto Hospicio's residents – or Hospiceños – express their feelings of marginalisation that result from living in city far from the national capital, and with a notoriously low quality of life compared to other urban areas in Chile.In actively distancing themselves from residents in cities such as Santiago, Hospiceños identify as marginalised citizens, and express a new kind of social norm. Yet Haynes finds that by contrasting their own lived experiences with those of people in metropolitan areas, Hospiceños are strengthening their own sense of community and the sense of normativity that shapes their daily lives. This exciting conclusion is illustrated by the range of social media posts about personal relationships, politics and national citizenship, particularly on Facebook. 

Executive Summary for Investing for Sustainable Global Fisheries

January 15, 2016

This publication is an Executive Summary of Investing for Sustainable Global Fisheries. This summary provides a brief overview of the work that was undertaken, a description of each Investment Blueprint, and some of the critical findings from the work. At the heart of each Investment Blueprint lies a proposed set of fishery management improvements and profitable investments that seek to have positive ecological and social impacts. On the ecological side, the goals are to maintain or restore fish stocks, reduce bycatch of nontarget species, and protect and restore marine habitat. On the social side, the goals are to improve fisher livelihoods, empower local communities, and contribute to local and regional food security.

Investing for Sustainable Global Fisheries

January 12, 2016

To better channel the flow of capital to the sustainable fisheries need and opportunity, Bloomberg Philanthropies and The Rockefeller Foundation supported Encourage Capital to develop six Investment Blueprints, each intended to serve as a roadmap for the growing number of investors, entrepreneurs, and fishery stakeholders seeking to attract and deploy private capital both to scale and to accelerate fisheries reform. The Investment Blueprints profile hypothetical investment strategies for application to three types of fisheries, including small-scale fisheries, focused on improving management of moderately distressed near-shore fish stocks landed by community-based, artisanal fishers using small vessels; industrial-scale fisheries, focused on improving management of severely distressed fish stocks landed by both artisanal and industrial fishers using a wide range of vessels and gear types; and national-scale fisheries, focused on implementing specific national-scale management improvements. The Investment Blueprints present investment strategies based on prototype fisheries spanning three countries and more than 25 species. By analyzing specific fisheries' current productivity, ecology, potential long-term yield, management regime, and supply-chain dynamics, Encourage was able to design and structure investment strategies that incorporate real-world risks and return potential. The Investment Blueprints offer viable models that can be replicated across a wide array of fisheries and geographies, mobilizing private capital to protect and restore the oceans' bounty.

The Mariscos Strategy : An Investment Blueprint for Small-Scale Fisheries in Chile

January 11, 2016

Encourage Capital has worked with support from Bloomberg Philanthropies and The Rockefeller Foundation to develop an impact investing strategy supporting the implementation of sustainable fishing improvements in a portfolio of small-scale, multispecies fisheries in Chile. The Mariscos Strategy is a hypothetical $7.0 million impact investment to protect seven small-scale fisheries along the Chilean coastline. The $7.0 million would fund the implementation of fisheries management improvements across the fisheries, and be used to expand an existing consumer packaged goods company producing gourmet "heat-and-eat" meals for Latin American consumers. The Mariscos Strategy is focused on generating an 11.1% base case equity return, while simultaneously protecting the multispecies stock biomass from current and future overfishing, enhancing almost 550 fisher livelihoods across seven fishing communities, and safeguarding the supply of over 5 million meals-to-market annually.

The Merluza Strategy : An Investment Blueprint for Industrial-Scale Fisheries in Chile

January 11, 2016

Encourage Capital has worked with support from Bloomberg Philanthropies and The Rockefeller Foundation to develop an impact-investing strategy supporting the implementation of sustainable fishing improvements in the distressed common hake fishery in Chile. The Merluza Strategy is a hypothetical $17.5 million impact investment to restore the hake fishery to its full biological and economic potential. The $17.5 million would fund the implementation of comprehensive fishery management improvements across the fishery, acquire 36% of the total fishing rights (or "quota") in the fishery, and create a new hake processing and distribution business incorporating jumbo squid products and sales. The Merluza Strategy targets the generation of a 16.4% base-case equity return with upside potential up to 35%, while simultaneously restoring hake stock to 75% of its biomass at Maximum Sustainable Yield (BMSY), generating $104 million in additional income for fishers divided among nearly 1,800 fishers across 12 caletas and delivering 136 million additional legal hake meals-to-market annually.