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Ending Street Homelessness in Vanguard Cities Across the Globe: An International Comparative Study

April 5, 2022

Street homelessness is one of the most extreme, and visible, manifestations of profound injustice on the planet, but often struggles to achieve priority attention at international level. The Institute of Global Homelessness (IGH's) A Place to Call Home initiative, launched in 2017, represented a concerted effort to support cities across the globe to eradicate street homelessness. A first cohort of 13 'Vanguard Cities' committed to a specific target on ending or reducing street homelessness by December 2020. Our independent evaluation of this initiative found that:Two Vanguard Cities – Glasgow and Sydney – fully met their self-defined target reductions for end 2020. In addition, Greater Manchester, while it did not meet its exceptionally ambitious goal of 'ending all rough sleeping', recorded an impressive 52% reduction against baseline.Overall, there was evidence of reductions in targeted aspects of street homelessness in over half of the Vanguard Cities. In most of the remaining cities data limitations, sometimes as a result of COVID, meant that it was not possible to determine trends. In only one Vanguard City – Edmonton – was there an evidenced increase in street homelessness over baseline levels.Key enablers of progress in reducing street homelessness included the presence of a lead coordinating agency, and coordinated entry to homelessness services, alongside investment in specialized and evidence-based interventions, such as assertive street outreach services, individual case management and Housing First.Key barriers to progress included heavy reliance on undignified and sometimes unsafe communal shelters, a preoccupation with meeting immediate physiological needs, and sometimes perceived spiritual needs, rather than structural and system change, and a lack of emphasis on prevention. Aggressive enforcement interventions by police and city authorities, and documentary and identification barriers, were also counter-productive to attempts to reduce street homelessness.A key contextual variable between the Vanguard Cities was political will, with success in driving down street homelessness associated with high-level political commitments. An absolute lack of funds was a major challenge in all of the Global South cities, but also in resource-poor settings in the Global North. Almost all Vanguard Cities cited pressures on the affordable housing stock as a key barrier to progress, but local lettings and other policies could make a real difference.The impact of the COVID-19 crisis differed markedly across the Vanguard Cities, with people at risk of street homelessness most effectively protected in the UK and Australian cities. Responses were less inclusive and ambitious in the North American and Global South cities, with more continued use of 'shared air' shelters, albeit that in some of these contexts the pandemic prompted better coordination of local efforts to address street homelessness.IGH involvement was viewed as instrumental in enhancing the local profile, momentum and level of ambition attached to reducing street homelessness in the Vanguard Cities. IGH's added value to future cohorts of cities could be maximised via a focus on more tailored forms of support specific to the needs of each city, and also to different types of stakeholders, particularly frontline workers.

Does Women’s Political Presence Matter? Examining the Effects of Descriptive Representation on Symbolic Representation in Uruguay

March 24, 2017

The ASU research team studied how women's descriptive, substantive, and symbolic political representation is affected by legislation that establishes quotas for the number of women serving in parliament. The team conducted their research in Uruguay, taking advantage of a five-year lag between when the gender quota law was passed (2009) and the elections for which it was first implemented (October 2014) to conduct a natural experiment on the law's effects, independent of those attributed to its drafting and passage. The ASU team implemented a two-wave survey, before and after quota implementation, and compared those survey results to content analyses of election coverage, legislators' floor speeches and websites, and bill sponsorship.

Reform of Abortion Law in Uruguay: Context, Process and Lessons Learned

December 8, 2016

In October 2012, a new law was approved in Uruguay that allows abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, 14 weeks in the case of rape, and without a time limit when the woman's health is at risk or in the case of foetal anomalies. This paper analyses this legal reform. It is based on 27 individual and group interviews with key informants, and on review of primary documents and the literature. The factors explaining the reform include: secular values in society, favourable public opinion, a persistent feminist movement, effective coalition building, particular party politics, and a vocal public health sector. The content of the new law reflects the tensions between a feminist perspective of women's rights and public health arguments that stop short of fully recognizing women's autonomy. The Uruguayan reform shows that, even in Latin America, abortion can be addressed politically without electoral cost to the parties that promote it. On the other hand, the prevailing public health rationale and conditionalities built into the law during the negotiation process resulted in a law that cannot be interpreted as a full recognition of women's rights, but rather as a modified protectionist approach that circumscribes women's autonomy.

Abortus Interruptus: Política y la reforma legal del aborto en Uruguay

November 7, 2016

Abortus interruptus es una sistematización y un análisis riguroso realizado por dos investigadores que aportan una mirada "externa" al Uruguay. Corrêa y Pecheny examinan el proceso político para la reforma legal del aborto en Uruguay con el propósito de identificar los alcances, tensiones y limitaciones de la ley 18.987 aprobada en octubre de 2012. La hipótesis de interpretación es que la reforma se inscribe en una tradición tutelar del Estado uruguayo, tutela que no desaparece con la ley pero sí que cambia notablemente su contenido: de una tutela represiva a una tutela sanitaria que reconoce derechos.

Are Governments Catching Up? Work-Family Policy and Inequality in Latin America

September 25, 2015

This paper examines government policies that aim to balance work and family life, focusing on employment based leaves and early childhood education and care (ECEC) services in Latin America. The paper charts the policy reforms across the region in both maternity, paternity and parental leaves and ECEC services, focusing especially on services for 0-3-year-old children. To illuminate regional trends and best practices, it provides more detailed case studies of policy reforms in Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica and Uruguay, with regard to both policy design and implementation. Drawing from these case studies, the paper finds that Latin America is moving in an equity-enhancing direction, particularly in terms of social equity, both in employment-based leaves and in care services. Care policies have a window of opportunity to become equity-enhancing policies both in terms of socio-economics and gender. Because these policies are being defined and implemented against the backdrop of deep familialism and high degrees of social inequality, equity enhancement is a challenging policy goal. The paper concludes with identifying the key factors in that are important in designing equity-enhancing change in work-family policies. This paper was produced for UN Women's flagship report Progress of the World's Women 2015-2016 to be released as part of the UN Women discussion paper series.

Alianza Estratégica Gerdau-GIZ: Integração do setor informal na cadeia do aço no Brasil, Chile, Peru e Uruguai, relatório de resultados 2010-2013

January 1, 2014

A publicação traz o resultado da parceria Gerdau e GIZ no setor informal na Cadeia do Aço no Brasil, Chile, Peru e Uruguai. A Gerdau e a Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH uniram esforços em uma Aliança Estratégica com o objetivo de fortalecer a organização e a gestão dos atores do setor informal da cadeia de valor do aço na América Latina. Para isso, desenvolveram ações em conjunto com o objetivo de integrar empresas e profissionais à indústria de maneira rentável e justa.

Mapping Digital Media: Uruguay

December 1, 2013

The Mapping Digital Media project examines the global opportunities and risks created by the transition from traditional to digital media. Covering 60 countries, the project examines how these changes affect the core democratic service that any media system should provide: news about political, economic, and social affairs.The digital media environment in Uruguay is developing rapidly due to a small population, sustained economic growth, a policy focus on universal service goals, and a strong legacy of social movements and civil society institutions.But private media ownership remains significantly concentrated in the hands of an oligopoly of wealthy families. Despite the proliferation of news platforms and outlets, diversity has not increased at all, due to the lack of original and independent online content.Recent reforms have improved the transparency and independence of broadcast licensing procedures (although the government still retains significant control over the award of spectrum), and a new press law in 2012 dealt a favorable hand to independent journalism.Along with a fairly broad access-to-information law in 2007, these measures have finally blown the cobwebs off the military dictatorship that ended in 1985 and provided the framework for a more democratic digital media future. More needs to be done, however, to ensure this potential is realized, particularly in respect of ownership concentration and regulatory independence.

Mapping Digital Media: Uruguay - Spanish

December 1, 2013

The Mapping Digital Media project examines the global opportunities and risks created by the transition from traditional to digital media. Covering 60 countries, the project examines how these changes affect the core democratic service that any media system should provide: news about political, economic, and social affairs.The digital media environment in Uruguay is developing rapidly due to a small population, sustained economic growth, a policy focus on universal service goals, and a strong legacy of social movements and civil society institutions.But private media ownership remains significantly concentrated in the hands of an oligopoly of wealthy families. Despite the proliferation of news platforms and outlets, diversity has not increased at all, due to the lack of original and independent online content.Recent reforms have improved the transparency and independence of broadcast licensing procedures (although the government still retains significant control over the award of spectrum), and a new press law in 2012 dealt a favorable hand to independent journalism.Along with a fairly broad access-to-information law in 2007, these measures have finally blown the cobwebs off the military dictatorship that ended in 1985 and provided the framework for a more democratic digital media future. More needs to be done, however, to ensure this potential is realized, particularly in respect of ownership concentration and regulatory independence.

Desarrollo y Filantropía en el Uruguay Fundaciones: Comunitarias en Uruguay - Recursos locales para el desarrollo

September 1, 2012

El presente informe es el resultado de un proceso de investigación desarrollado en el marco del proyecto Fundaciones Comunitarias en Uruguay. Dicho estudio persigue el objetivo de analizar y delinear los perfiles de la filantropía local y profundizar sobre los desafíos que el concepto de fundaciones comunitarias plantea al contexto Uruguayo en la opinión de todos los involucrados en el desarrollo nacional.

Coastal Fisheries of South America and the Caribbean

January 1, 2011

The importance of fisheries for coastal communities and livelihoods in South America-Latin America; and the Caribbean (LAC) is well documented. This is particularly the case for 'coastal fisheries', including subsistence, traditional (artisanal) and advanced artisanal (or semi-industrial) varieties. There are, however, major gaps in knowledge about these fisheries, and major challenges in their assessment and management. Therein lies the key theme of this document, which seeks to contribute to a better understanding of coastal fisheries in the LAC region, as well as to generate discussion about ways to move towards sustainable fisheries. The document includes three main components. First, an introductory chapter provides an overview of general trends in the fisheries of the LAC countries, as well as some of the key challenges they are facing in terms of sustainability. Second, a set of twelve chapters each reporting on the coastal fisheries of one country in South America-Latin America; and the North America (Caribbean); collectively covering fisheries of each main subregion: the Caribbean islands (North America (Caribbean)-North America (Caribbean)-Barbados; Cuba, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago), North and Central America (North America (Central America)-Costa Rica; Mexico) and South America (Argentina, South America (Northeastern)-Brazil; South America (Northwestern)-South America (Northwestern)-Colombia; Uruguay). All these country-specific chapters follow an integrated approach, to the extent possible, covering aspects ranging from the biological to the socio-economic. Third, the final component of the document contains a synthesis of information from the countries examined, an analysis of the main issues and challenges faced by the various fisheries, an outline of policy directions to improve fisheries management systems in the LAC region, identification of routes toward more integrated approaches for coastal fisheries management, and recommendations for 'ways forward' in dealing with fishery assessment and governance issues in the region.

Policy Scan: An Exploratory Study of National Youth Service Policy in 19 Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

August 15, 2006

This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of government policies that involve youth in community service in 19 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The research, which was performed in 2004, provides descriptive information and explores the context within which national youth service policies can emerge and thrive. While it is assumed that well-designed national youth service policies provide a framework for engaging youth in pro-social activities that benefit themselves and their communities, relatively little research is available on the subject. Findings indicate that 13 of 19 countries in the study have a national youth service policy, and that the policies vary in forms and configuration. Facilitators and obstacles of these policies are discussed. The paper concludes by providing recommendations to policy makers.

EU Association Agreements with Latin America: Good News for Those in Poverty?

May 1, 1999

This Briefing focuses on the economic dimension of the Association Agreements under discussion between the European Union and Mercosur, Chile and Mexico. These accords will create free trade areas and cover related matters such as intellectual property rights, government procurement, trade in services and capital movements. After examining trade relations between Europe and Latin America in their global and regional context, the paper considers the likely impact of the agreements on poverty in Latin America. We conclude that the EU is not taking sufficient account of human development concerns in their design - a failure stemming from excessive confidence in the contribution economic liberalisation will make to growth, and in the poverty reduction that will flow from that growth. Finally, we consider how the agreements could better achieve economic development and equity. Many of these suggestions are relevant to EU policies towards other countries in Latin America, and to any future regional agreement with the Caribbean.