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Alimentando a desigualdade: Os custos ocultos do monopólio industrial da carne

April 4, 2024

Este relatório examina, desde uma perspectiva crítica, a indústria brasileira da carne com foco na JBS, a maior empresa de alimentos do mundo, cujos produtos são baseados principalmente no processamento de proteína animal. O tema central gira em torno do forte contraste entre o crescimento exponencial da referida empresa, incentivado por políticas governamentais e instituições financeiras, e a escalada das desigualdades sociais no Brasil.Principais conclusões:A indústria global da carne testemunhou um crescimento meteórico desde a década de 1960, com um aumento de 402% na produção;A JBS é a maior processadora de carne do mundo, com receita anual de R$ 370 bilhões, representando 2,1% do PIB brasileiro e 2,7% do emprego nacional. O slogan da empresa é "Alimentando o mundo com o que há de melhor";Nos últimos 20 anos, R$ 31 bilhões das finanças públicas foram canalizadas para a JBS por meio de incentivos do Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES);O BNDES detém 20,8% da participação da JBS; investidores estrangeiros detêm 11%;Mais de 100 mil trabalhadores da JBS ganham um salário médio de R$ 1700 mensais, um terço do que é estimado como salário digno no Brasil. Cada um dos cinco principais executivos da JBS fatura o equivalente a R$ 2 milhões por mês;A maioria dos mais de 400 acionistas que participam das assembleias anuais da empresa são contra os elevados salários dos executivos, mas estes valores continuam crescendo exponencialmente;O Brasil está classificado como o país mais desigual do mundo em termos de distribuição de riqueza;Os indicadores de pobreza e fome aumentaram em 11 de 12 das grandes cidades brasileiras com as quais a JBS possui operações (2013-2023).

Feeding inequality: The hidden costs of Brazil's meat industry monopoly

March 24, 2024

This report critically examines the Brazilian meat industry, focusing on JBS, the world's largest food company, based mostly on processed meat products. The central theme revolves around the stark contrast between JBS's exponential growth, fuelled by government policies and financial institutions, and escalating social inequalities in Brazil.Key takeaways:The global meat industry has witnessed a meteoric rise since the 1960s with production increasing 402%. JBS is the world's biggest meat processor with annual revenue of US $77 billion, contributing 2.1% to Brazil's GDP and 2.7% of its employment. Its slogan is "We feed the world with the best". In the last 20 years, US $6 billion has flowed to JBS in public finance through the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES). BNDES holds a 20.8% stake in JBS. Foreign investors hold 11%.Over a hundred thousand workers at JBS earn around US $393 monthly, a third of what is estimated as a living wage in Brazil. Each of the five top JBS executives take home the equivalent of US $420,000 every month. The majority of the 400+ shareholders who attend the company's annual meetings are against the executives' high wages, but these wages continue to increase. Brazil ranks as the most unequal country in the world in terms of wealth inequality. Indicators of poverty and hunger have increased in 11 of 12 Brazilian cities where JBS is heavily involved (2013-2023). 

Filantropia que transforma - Transforming philanthropy

February 28, 2024

The publication Transforming Philanthropy: mapping of independent grantmaking organizations for civil society in the areas of socio-environmental justice and community development in Brazil presents an unprecedented survey of organizations that show that this way of doing philanthropy is strong and present in the country, and can be seen as a movement that attempts to change power relations by supporting human rights and socio-environmental justice alongside the grassroots organizations. It is also a study that is constantly under construction, since other existing organizations may not have been mentioned here, and new ones may have been created since this publication came out, which leaves room for future expansion and development of the topic.

Conversion Therapy Online: The Ecosystem In 2023

January 23, 2024

In January 2022, the Global Project Against Hate and Extremism (GPAHE) published extensive research on the online conversion "therapy" ecosystem. GPAHE looked at searches for terms related to conversion therapy in six countries and in four languages: Australia, Colombia, Germany, Ireland, Kenya in English and Swahili, and in the United States in English and Spanish. Conversion therapy materials were assessed on Google, Bing, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube, and in some cases, PayPal and Alexa. In a separate report, the research also documented those conversion therapy providers that surfaced prominently in online searches. The list of terms used in this research can be found in the appendix. GPAHE's 2022 research was successfully used to educate tech companies on how they were failing users regarding disinformation about conversion therapy. Though some social media companies already supposedly banned or downgraded this material, it was still widely prevalent in 2022 and a significant number of providers had accounts on the major platforms. After GPAHE's report, many providers were deplatformed on Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Twitter, PayPal and Apple, and the algorithmic rabbit holes, the paths driving searchers to more and more disinformation, were mitigated. Search engines Google and Bing also made improvements to their algorithms. An effort spearheaded by GLAAD but employing GPAHE's 2022 research led TikTok to ban promotion of conversion therapy on the platform, and today the platform seems relatively clear of such material. These were considerable successes in protecting the public from online conversion therapy disinformation. But challenges remain particularly in the context of non-English languages, in the enforcement of the rules banning conversion therapy online, and in the skill with which promoters use social media to spread their dangerous messages while circumventing social media content moderation rules.This 2023 report is a follow up GPAHE's 2022 research and examines the same material in Brazil, Benin, Burkina Faso, the Ivory Coast, Mali, Mexico, South Africa in isiZulu, and the U.S. in English and Spanish. In the case of West Africa, French results were collected, and though local languages were tried, they rarely appeared in search results because of the lack of online material in languages such as Dioula. GPAHE has also added TikTok to its research in some cases.

The hen and the egg: Opinions of Brazilian consumers on the importance of animal welfare in the quality of the egg produced

December 30, 2023

The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of how egg consumers in Brazil view the relation among egg production systems, animal welfare and egg quality. It explores Brazilian egg consumers': 1. Views and attitudes toward three different egg production systems: caged, cage-free, and free-range. 2. Views and attitudes toward the egg quality and its relation to different production systems and animal welfare. 3. Awareness of egg production practices and systems. 4. Purchasing habits and behavior, and willingness to pay more for eggs produced under alternative systems.Key findings:Eggs have become one of the most accessible sources of protein for most Brazilians. Price is the most important factor that affects their buying decision.For most consumers, the system where an egg is produced influences its final quality, and they consider systems with improved hen welfare to produce better quality eggs.Consumers are aware of the most common egg production systems in Brazil - conventional cages and the "caipira" system - but less informed about the cage-free and free-range systems.Consumers believe that the cage-free systems with space for hens to move around, perch, nest, and dust bathe do not provide good welfare for the hens, nor produce good quality eggs; in contrast, they believe that the free-range system, with the same resources but also with outdoor access does provides good welfare and produce high quality eggs. This demonstrates that outdoor access is a crucial issue in the public perception of farm animal welfare and consequently in the quality of the egg.Willingness to pay more for products with improved farm animal welfare is not a strong trend yet. The current economic situation greatly affects the purchasing power of most people.Consumers do not perceive the information provided in labels for eggs as clear and accurate.

Socioeconomic aspects of cage-free and crate-free farm animal production systems

December 30, 2023

This report focuses on Brazil and discusses socioeconomic aspects of transitioning from caged to cage-free systems for housing laying hens, and from sows' gestation crates to collective housing systems for pigs in the context of Brazil. It is based on interviews with key stakeholders in eggs and pigs sectors in Brazil as well as literature review.Key findings:Workforce training in animal welfare - particularly animal behavior - is a determinant in the success of adopting cage/crate free systems. But such training is not always present in Brazil. Significant investments and costs to replace one production system with another is a main factor preventing rural producers to change. Higher production costs is not helped by unfavorable market condition for producers. There is a general sense that cage/crate free systems not only improve animal welfare but also the well-being of people working directly in these systems.Animal husbandry performance and productivity may be reduced initially in new cage/crate free systems, but with adaptations and mitigations, the level will improve. Making farmers aware of this adjustment phase is very important so they will not be disappointed and abandon the new systems.

The Rockefeller Foundation’s International Health Board and the Attempt to Eradicate Yellow Fever

October 24, 2023

Beginning in 1914, the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Commission (which became the International Health Board in 1916 and the International Health Division in 1927) committed itself to the project of eradicating yellow fever. Its efforts were modeled on the sanitary techniques deployed by US sanitarians in Havana in 1901 and, more importantly, during the construction of the Panama Canal between 1904 and 1914, with mosquito control preeminent among them. William C. Gorgas, who led these campaigns and then came to work for the Rockefeller Foundation, argued for a key center approach to yellow fever eradication that targeted the remaining urban endemic foci of infection, with the assumption that once these seed beds of the disease were eliminated, yellow fever would fade from the planet. But as the IHB conducted campaigns in South America, Central America, and West Africa during the late 1910s and 1920s, they discovered that yellow fever's ecology and epidemiology were more complicated than they had assumed, and that a "key center" approach would not work to eradicate the disease. By the 1930s, and particularly with Fred Soper's discovery of sylvan or jungle yellow fever, the Rockefeller Foundation gave up on their eradicationist dream.

Effective Behaviour Change Strategies to Promote Meat Reduction in Brazil

September 6, 2023

Brazil's dietary landscape has a great deal of regional diversity, with meat playing a crucial role across many dishes and set against the backdrop of a complex social structure. Patterns of meat consumption vary significantly across the country, influenced by regional traditions, social disparities, and economic factors. Any strategies to promote meat consumption reduction in Brazil will need to be region-specific and tailored to the specific audience. Behavioral science research, primarily from wealthier Western nations, has found that there are many barriers for individuals in reducing their meat eating, such as the lack of dietary knowledge, strong cultural and social norms supporting meat consumption, misperceptions about the health benefits of meat, and resistance to trying new foods. The research also points to several promising strategies to promote a more plant-based diet.This report describes the COM-B model that brings together many theories of behavior change. It proposes that for change to occur, one needs: 1) Capability to carry out the action - physical (being able to do it) and psychological (having the right knowledge and knowing how to do it). 2) Opportunity to perform it - physical (having the right chance to do it ) and social (affected by what our peers think and say). 3) Motivation to do it - automatic (feeling like doing it) and reflective (deciding to do it).The report adapts the COM-B to provide practical advice on how to promote eating less meat for Brazil, giving examples applicable specifically to Brazil.Key lesson for frontline workers: One must define the precise behavior and specific audience to be influenced. Before taking any action, one should identify who (i.e., the specific population on whom one is going to focus), when one wants the reduction to occur (e.g., at home, away from home, only at dinner), how much of a reduction one wants to see. Do not go for "everyone in society".

The role of media festivals in strengthening independent media

August 28, 2023

Festivals taking place across the Global South are attracting increasingly global attendees. This brief discussion paper looks at four diverse examples of such festivals – Media Party in Argentina, Festival 3i in Brazil, Splice Beta in Thailand, and the Africa Media Festival in Kenya – and seeks to develop preliminary hypotheses about the nature of these events, what distinguishes them from other events in the independent media ecosystem, what they hope to achieve, and how they are evolving.It also seeks to discern patterns or learnings emerging from these festivals that suggest practical recommendations for those running, setting up or supporting such events in the future, and includes concrete examples of practices that other practitioners can learn or adapt from. We also explore the role of media festivals in the resilience of local regional and global digital native ecosystems.The report has been authored by independent consultant Sameer Padania, who was an active participant in all four festivals featured, as part of a consultancy project for International Media Support, funded by the Ford Foundation. He was a judge for a pitch session and ran one workshop at Media Party, gave three clinics and one workshop at Splice Beta, co-ran one workshop and co-moderated a donors' meeting at the Africa Media Festival, and spoke on a panel at Festival 3i. The report also draws on inputs from IMS programme managers and partners.

Pastoral Agriculture: John B. Griffing, Agricultural Missionaries, and Transnational Agricultural Development

August 9, 2023

This report examines the life and career of John B. Griffing to understand the larger transnational project of rural development in the twentieth century. Griffing had an eclectic career that took him to various parts of the United States, China, and Brazil. While Griffing's papers are scattered across multiple institutions and countries, collections from the Rockefeller Archive Center (RAC) were particularly useful in tracing the evolution of Griffing's ideas about rural development over time. At least two themes emerge when studying his career. The first is his views on religion and rural development. As the son of a small-town dairy farmer and grandson of a Methodist minister, Griffing found a way to blend these two influences by working as an "agricultural missionary" where he promoted agricultural improvement as a tool for spreading Christianity in China. His later work in Brazil focused less on proselytizing but he continued to champion the rural church as an effective center for agricultural change. The second theme is Griffing's emphasis on extension work and the importance of reaching rural youth through programs such as 4-H clubs. For Griffing, club work (which focused mostly on boys) was an effective way to cultivate a form of rugged masculinity, while also spreading new agricultural crops and practices to their parents. 

Creative Capitalism: Nelson Rockefeller’s Development Vision for Latin America and the World

May 30, 2023

This study of the American International Association for Economic and Social Development (AIA) and its associated corporations, including the commercial International Basic Economy Corporation (IBEC), illuminates an understudied chapter in the history of the public-private aid regime that grew in the mid-twentieth century to become the major industry it is today. As development aid became an American strategic priority in the decades after World War II, Nelson Rockefeller embarked on his own experiment for improving agricultural production and standards of living in poor areas of the world. His laboratory would be Latin America, the region he knew well from his wartime work at the Office of Inter-American Affairs (OIAA). Rockefeller's vision of "creative capitalism" meshed development work into a complex system of nonprofit and for-profit corporations engaged in trial-and-error projects to figure out how to develop perceived underdeveloped societies. With the announcement of President Truman's Point IV policy to deploy American development aid globally, Rockefeller advised the US government to make creative and robust use of American nonprofit and commercial expertise to implement this new strategic objective. This project illustrates just how overlapping and porous the boundaries of nonprofit and commercial development work were and the extent to which they intertwined with the state and other entities. It also shows the difficulties of agricultural and economic development abroad when conducted by small nonprofit corporations and commercial capital—even with the backing of Rockefeller wealth. These limitations meant that AIA increasingly turned to support from the burgeoning US and international public-private aid industry.

Perspectives for Brazilian Philanthropy 2023

April 13, 2023

n its second edition, the publication Perspectives for Brazilian Philanthropy by IDIS – Institute for Development of Social Investment presents the current scenario, identifies inspiring actions, and points out ways for a more strategic and transformative private social investment, bringing together elements that contribute to decision making. At the background, resonances of the preview's year, marked by polarized elections and the need for organizations and entities to come out publicly and demonstrate their commitment to democracy, in apparent check. Also, the worrying return of Brazil to the UN Hunger Map, the serious situation of indigenous peoples in the Brazilian Amazon, in addition to the record levels of deforestation.There are eight perspectives that has 'boldness' as a common element, reflecting and showing practical examples on how philanthropists and social investors can act in a strategic, effective, and agile way.