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Migration Narratives in Northern Central America: How Competing Stories Shape Policy and Public Opinion in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador

June 7, 2023

The stories told within a society about migration and migrants paint a rich picture of how its members view the opportunities and challenges associated with the movement of people, and through what lenses. These migration narratives both inform policymaking and shape the public's reaction to government policy, affecting the policies' chances of achieving their goals.While El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras are primarily known for emigration to the United States and Mexico, these northern Central American countries have seen notable changes in migration trends in recent years. The number of migrants from South America and the Caribbean who transit through these countries on their way north has increased, as has the number of Central Americans returning to their countries of origin.

Out of the Frying Pan into the Fire Part Two – Building Resilience to Climate Change and Violent Conflict

November 1, 2017

Here in part two, we begin our examination of community resilience. It builds on the findings in part one by taking a closer look at the context of climate change and violence in three countries where Christian Aid works: Angola, Honduras and Mali. Each case study sets out the particular context in terms of conflict, violence and climate change, explores the links between climate vulnerability and violent conflict, and discusses approaches to supporting climate and conflict resilience in that country, based on the experiences of Christian Aid staff. In Angola, the protection of land rights is essential in building resilience and climate change adaptation among communities. In Mali, tackling security challenges and programming with an awareness of the presence of unusual actors are key to moving forward in a region vulnerableto both extreme weather and conflict. In Honduras, building environmental resilience using conflict sensitivity principles offers great promise in addressing the challenges. Both climate change and violence are extremely context specific,and therefore, this paper does not attempt an across-the-board analysis according to a set of quantitative indicators. However, it does attempt to identify parallels and differences between the three case studies, in order to make some recommendations for policy development and wider application. Most importantly, part two takes the view that building resilience in communities is just one important part in the menu of options – it does not stand alone in responding to the challenges of climate change and conflict. When taken alongside community-level tools for understanding the root causes of violence, such as participatory vulnerability and capacity assessments (PVCAs), and when complemented by national and global advocacy on the responsibilities and obligations of duty-bearers and market actors, it becomes the building block in Christian Aid's overall approach to climate justice.

2015 Report Card for the Mesoamerican Reef

May 9, 2015

In 2013 and 2014, HRI and partners systematically measured the health of 248 reef sites across 1,000 km of the four countries. This 2015 Report Card represents the first year that HRI has calculated and presented more detailed maps of coral reef condition on a variety of spatial scales -- from regional to local. Regional scale data provide insight on larger scale reef health patterns that can help identify transboundary issues, while subregional and local data help detect finer-scale patterns of reef condition. The country-focused maps provide individual indicator scores at the site level. These new data maps provide guidance for partners on where to focus conservation actions at the most appropriate, effective management scale.The overall 2015 Reef Health Index score is 'fair', with encouraging improvements at both the regional level and of individual indicators. Corals -- the architects of the reef -- have improved since 2006, increasing from 10%-16% cover. Fleshy macroalgae, the main competitors with corals for open reef space, have increased. Key herbivorous fish continue to increase in numbers and are needed to reduce this macroalgae. Commercial fish have also increased in biomass, which is an encouraging sign, although large groupers are rare and mainly found in fully protected zones of MPAs.

Unaccompanied Child Migration to the United States: The Tension between Protection and Prevention

April 22, 2015

Between 2011 and 2014 the number of Central American children and "family units" arriving at the US-Mexico border grew rapidly, reaching a peak of 137,000 in fiscal year 2014. While many of these migrants have valid claims for political asylum or other forms of humanitarian relief, others are primarily motivated by economic concerns and a desire to reconnect with family members-- constituting a complex, mixed flow that has challenged the capacity of the United States to respond. This report makes recommendations on policies that advance both critical protection and enforcement goals in situations of complex, mixed flows. It explains the shifting pattern of Central American migration between 2011 and 2014, analyzes why inflows during this period prompted a particularly acute policy challenge, and outlines the U.S. and regional policy responses put into place to address the crisis. The report concludes with recommendations on additional policies that the United States, Mexico, and the Northern Triangle countries of El Salvador; Guatemala, and Honduras might adopt to better manage child and family migration pressures today and in the future.

Livelihoods in Honduras: Evaluation of strengthening small-scale farmers' agribusiness capabilities

December 3, 2014

This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2013/14, selected for review under the livelihoods thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in March 2014 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the 'Strengthening small farmers' agribusiness capabilities in western Honduras' project.The overall objective of the project was to contribute to the improvement of income generation and food security of families in six municipalities in western Honduras. Project activities included: technical support to improving agricultural production, improvements in access to markets, and strengthening administrative credit and financial structures in the community. The project activities were implemented by Oxfam GB in conjunction with a local partner organisation - Organismo Cristiano de Desarrollo Integral de Honduras (OCDIH). The project started in 2010 and completed in March 2014 as a continuation of previous projects which were implemented from approximately 2007 to 2010 in the same geographical areas as the project under analysis, but covering a greater number of villages.For more information, the data for this effectiveness review is available through the UK Data Service. Read more about the Oxfam Effectiveness Reviews. 

Monitoring Climate Finance in Developing Countries: Challenges and Next Steps

April 10, 2014

At the 18th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the parties agreed to a standard format for developed countries to follow when reporting on the climate finance they provide to developing countries. Developed countries will use these formats for the first time when they submit their Biennial Reports to the UNFCCC in early 2014. Later in 2014, developing countries are expected to submit Biennial Update Reports showing the financial support that they have received. From initial attempts to measure and report climate finance by developed and developing countries, it is already apparent that information on finance provided is unlikely to match information on finance received.Aside from the reporting requirements of the UNFCCC, better financial data can help decision makers in developing countries identify gaps, improve coordination and management, and raise funds to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Better climate finance information can also enable countries to draw lessons from the use of different financial instruments and develop strategies and policies that aim to expand finance for climate change. Improved data will allow the information reported by developed countries to be cross-checked, thus promoting transparency, completeness, and accuracy. Finally, it can contribute to a more comprehensive picture of climate financial flows in relation to development assistance at the national and international levels. This working paper reports on three workshops in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, in which participants discussed some of the steps that developing countries and their international partners can take toward monitoring and tracking climate finance more effectively. More than 40 representatives from 20 developing countries, regional development banks, and national organizations attended the three workshops. Participants shared information on the limits of existing legislation and mandates, national planning and approval processes, financial management systems, efforts to coordinate among ministries and development partners, and many other unique challenges faced by the participating countries. WRI obtained additional information via a questionnaire, follow-up correspondence, and interviews with representatives of the countries.

Effectiveness Review: Supporting Rural Community Banks, Honduras

February 14, 2014

Oxfam has worked with a local partner organisation to support smallholder households in several communities in western Honduras since 1998. Two main interventions have been carried out over this period. First, the establishment and support of four community banks, in order to provide households with a source of credit for productive investments. Second, the partners facilitated the establishment of a producers' association that provides technical support, credit and a marketing channel for horticulture production in the area.These reports document the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in August and September 2012 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of this programme work.For more information, the data for this effectiveness review is available through the UK Data Service. Read more about the Oxfam Effectiveness Reviews. 

Regional Study on Social Dimensions of MPA Practice in Central America: Cases Studies from Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panamá

March 1, 2013

This research focuses on the social dimensions of marine conservation, and makes an assessment of the experiences of coastal and fishing communities with regard to the governance of MPAs in North America (Central America); based on case studies from Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and North America (Central America)-Panama;. It examines the national contexts of the above countries in relation to the governance of MPAs. Furthermore, it analyzes the social impacts of MPAs on coastal communities by gathering the experiences and the voices of the communities and institutions involved, and reflects on how to build bridges in the search for forms and models of conservation that respect human rights and which are able to successfully integrate into local development efforts without affecting cultural and/or social patterns. To this end, this monograph looks at nine case studies across the region: in Honduras, the Islas de la Bahia-Guanaja Marine National Park, the Cayos Cochinos Marine Archipelago Natural Monument, and the Cuero and Salado Wildlife Refuge; in Nicaragua, the Chacocente Wildlife Refuge; in North America (Central America)-Costa Rica; the Guanacaste Conservation Area, the Ballena Marine National Park and the Golfo Dulce Responsible Fishing Area; and, in North America (Central America)-North America (Central America)-Panama; the Nargana Protected Area, in the Comarca de la Biosfera Guna-Yala, the Bastimentos Island Marine National Park, and Bocas del Toro.

AGALI, 2012 Annual Report

January 1, 2013

The Adolescent Girls' Advocacy & Leadership Initiative improves adolescent girls' health, education, and livelihoods in Africa and Latin America. AGALI empowers leaders and organizations to advocate for girl-friendly laws, policies, and funding in Guatemala, Honduras, Liberia, Malawi, and Ethiopia. Through capacity building workshops, seed grant funding, and technical assistance, AGALI has created a global movement of leaders and organizations advocating for girls. AGALI's impacts include the passage and implementation of national laws, policies, and programs that protect girls from violence, increase their access to education, health services, and economic opportunities, and empower young women to develop their own solutions to the obstacles they face. AGALI Fellows and their institutions have provided direct training and services to over 40,000 adolescent girls and their allies, in addition to engaging 600 grassroots organizations in girl-centered advocacy efforts.

Living without Sanitary Sewers in Latin America: The Business of Collecting Fecal Sludge in Four Latin American Cities

March 1, 2012

This is an investigation of fecal sludge removal, collection, and disposal in peri-urban areas of Bolivia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Honduras (all countries where sanitary sewerage coverage is below the regional average). Based on surveys and focus groups among users, surveys and interviews with operators, and interviews with strategic stakeholders, the author describes the existing institutional structures and markets for sludge collection services in these places and recommends ways they can be improved.

AGALI, 2011 Annual Report

January 1, 2012

The Adolescent Girls' Advocacy & Leadership Initiative (AGALI) has worked for the past three years to strengthen the capacity of civil society leaders and organizations in Latin America and Africa to advocate with and for marginalized adolescent girls. During 2011, the Public Health Institute (PHI) implemented the AGALI program in Guatemala, Liberia, Malawi, Ethiopia, and Honduras with a $550,000 grant from the UN Foundation (please see Attachment A: Financial Report for more details). Since the program's inception, AGALI has strengthened the ability and commitment of leaders and institutions to advocate for laws, policies, and funding that respond to adolescent girls' needs, while enhancing young women's ability to develop their own solutions to the social, economic, and health challenges they face. The AGALI program uses a multi-faceted approach to improve adolescent girls' welfare that includes intensive workshops, seed grants, technical assistance, institutional strengthening, a structured outreach and dissemination process, and building the knowledge base for the field of adolescent girls. AGALI's comprehensive model strengthens the capacity of civil society leaders and organizations to advance the efforts of the United Nations' country programs and the UN Adolescent Girls' Task Force (AGTF) to promote adolescent girls' human rights, health, education, and socio-economic wellbeing in UN priority focus countries.