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Positive Peace Report 2022: Analysing the factors that build, predict and sustain peace

January 20, 2022

Peace is much more than the absence of violence. Positive Peace describes the attitudes, structures and institutions that underpin and sustain peaceful societies. The Institute has developed a conceptual framework, known as the Pillars of Peace, that outlines a system of eight factors that work together to build positive peace. Derived from a statistical analysis of over 4,000 datasets, the Pillars of Peace provides a roadmap to overcome adversity and conflict, and to build lasting peace.

A Consensus Proposal for a Revised Regional Order in Post-Soviet Europe and Eurasia

December 19, 2019

At the core of the heightened tensions between Russia and the West is the contest for influence over the countries physically located between them (referred to here as the in-between states): first and foremost Ukraine, but also Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. While the relationship between Russia and the West was far from ideal before 2014, it was the Ukraine crisis that fundamentally changed that relationship, ruling out any remaining hopes for partnership and effectively institutionalizing a confrontational dynamic. The contest over the in-between states has taken a significant toll on these countries. The most extreme case is the war in Ukraine, in which over 13,000 people have died; other regional conflicts have occurred in Moldova, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, and the competition has also disrupted regional trade patterns and set back the process of reform and domestic transformation in these states. In short, all of the states involved—Russia, the countries of the West, and the in-between states—are less secure and prosperous as a result.

Women's Empowerment in Armenia: Impact evaluation of the women's economic empowerment project in rural communities in Vayots Dzor region

March 14, 2017

This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the women's empowerment thematic area. The evaluation took place in November 2015 in Vayots Dzor region - Armenia. It intended to evaluate the success of the 'Women's economic empowerment in rural communities of Vayots Dzor region' project in achieving its objectives: increasing household income (by promoting agriculture/horticulture and agribusiness) and promoting women's economic empowerment.The project, implemented by the Oxfam partner Business Support Centre (BSC), Scientific Center for Vegetable and Industrial Crops (SCVIC) and Horizon Fund, started in April 2011 supporting four cooperatives in four villages in Vayots Dzor region. The project was concluded in 2013. This evaluation was conducted in November 2015, two years after the project activities concluded. The evaluation adopted a mixed method approach employing quasi-experimental impact evaluation design combined with a qualitative component.Read more about Oxfam's Effectiveness Reviews.

Education, Skills and Labor Market Outcomes: Results from Large-Scale Adult Skills Surveys in Urban Areas in 12 Countries

May 5, 2016

In recent years, skills development has become a priority among developed and developing countries alike. The World Bank Group, in its quest to end extreme poverty and promote shared prosperity, has joined efforts with countries and multilateral development partners to ensure that individuals have access to quality education and training opportunities and that employers can find the skills they need to operate. The skills towards employability and productivity (STEP) skills measurement program is part of the World Bank's portfolio of analytical products on skills. The STEP program consists of two survey instruments that collect information on the supply and demand for skills in urban areas: a household survey and an employer survey. STEP has been implemented in waves, the first surveys being implemented in seven countries in 2012 (Bolivia, Colombia, Ghana, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (PDR), Ukraine, Vietnam, and the Yunnan Province in China), and the second in five countries in 2013 (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kenya, and Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of (FYR)). The data presented in this publication correspond to these countries. It illustrates the similarities and differences among groups that have completed different education levels on a wide range of issues and outcomes. Section one analyzes the trajectory of skills acquisition: participation in early childhood education programs, educational attainment by gender, and participation in training and apprenticeship programs. Section two explores background conditions associated with educational attainment, including the socioeconomic status of survey respondents at age 15, the educational attainment of their parents, their households' asset levels, their health (as expressed by the presence of chronic illness), and their overall satisfaction with life. Section three covers cognitive skills: writing, numeracy, and reading (which is also evaluated through a direct reading assessment). Section four covers job-relevant skills, which are task-specific and which respondents possess or use on the job; and section five covers socio-emotional skills, using established metrics to measure personality and behavior. Section six covers the status of survey respondents in the labor market: whether they are employed, unemployed, or inactive.

Civil Society Voices: How the EU Should Engage Its Eastern Neighbours

May 1, 2015

The EU's "eastern neighbourhood" is an increasingly complicated and contested space. The challenge of Russia's resurgence and regional elites' resistance to reform are forcing the EU to reevaluate its policies.With the launch of its Eastern Partnership six years ago, the EU was ready to offer its neighbors to the east—Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine—integration into the EU market, mobility of people, and close political ties in exchange for rule of law and democratic and economic reforms. Today, it questions whether this policy has secured its strategic interests and political influence.The Eastern Partnership reinforced domestic constituencies for change in at least three partners—Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine—that in 2014 signed association agreements. It has not lost the potential to contribute to democratic processes and support reformers in the other three: Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Belarus. The Eastern Partnership remains the EU's most effective foreign policy instrument to build accountable and stable institutions and states, and uphold the EU's commitment to its neighbors' sovereignty and right to make independent foreign policy choices.This policy paper—the result of extensive discussions with experts and civil society leaders—highlights local concerns and expectations about the EU's role in the region and its support for stability and democracy. As the EU rethinks its policies in the area, this paper offers recommendations on how to make the Eastern Partnership more effective and relevant to people, societies, and government, and to secure the EU's interests in an increasingly polarized and unstable region.

Livelihoods in Armenia: Evaluation of new economic opportunities for small-scale farmers in Tavush and Vayots Dzor regions

March 31, 2015

This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2013/14, selected for review under the livelihoods thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in April 2014 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the 'new economic opportunities for small scale farmers in Tavush and Vayots Dzor regions' project.The project was implemented in 19 agriculture-dependent villages in two regions of Armenia, Tavush and Vayots Dzor, by Oxfam GB in Armenia in conjunction with local partners Union of Agricultural Cooperatives, Work and Motherland NGO, Horizon Fund and Scientific Center of Vegetable & Industrial Crops. The overarching objective of the project was to support smallholder farmers to secure sustainable livelihoods through increasing access to economic opportunities in agricultural value chains and increasing their ability to withstand natural disasters related to climate change. Farmers' cooperatives were established in the targeted communities. These cooperatives provided a platform through which most other project activities were implemented at community and household level. Project implementation started in April 2010 and concluded in November 2012. Eight villages, four each in Tavush and Vayots Dzor regions, were targeted in the first year with more added to implementation in subsequent years. The focus of the evaluation was on the impact of the project on participating households in these eight villages, in which implementation had started earliest.Read more about Oxfam's Effectiveness Reviews

Mapping Digital Media: Armenia

November 1, 2013

The Mapping Digital Media project examines the global opportunities and risks created by the transition from traditional to digital media. Covering 60 countries, the project examines how these changes affect the core democratic service that any media system should provide: news about political, economic, and social affairs.Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the internet in Armenia, not only among the residents of the capital city and other urban areas, but also in remote regions of the country. It was particularly noticeable in 2010–2011, when the number of internet users increased by almost 40 percent.The report finds that, overall, digitization has increased the diversity of media outlets and their news offer, and the plurality of opinions expressed. Yet the lack of independence of regulatory institutions, non-transparent media ownership, flawed broadcast legislation, and the slow pace of digital switch-over continue to obstruct the development of the media sector. Television, the main source of information, is still largely controlled by the authorities. There is widespread hidden censorship as a result of political pressure on media outlets, which especially affects the news and political output on television. Most media outlets remain dependent upon large businesses and the political elite, with which they have become integrated.

Human Rights in Patient Care: A Practitioner Guide - Armenia

May 1, 2013

Health systems can too often be places of punishment, coercion, and violations of basic rights—rather than places of treatment and care. In many cases, existing laws and tools that provide remedies are not adequately used to protect rights.This Practitioner Guide series presents practical how-to manuals for lawyers interested in taking cases around human rights in patient care. The manuals examine patient and provider rights and responsibilities, as well as procedures for protection through both the formal court system and alternative mechanisms in 10 countries.Each Practitioner Guide is country-specific, supplementing coverage of the international and regional framework with national standards and procedures in the following:ArmeniaGeorgiaKazakhstanKyrgyzstanMacedoniaMoldova (forthcoming)RomaniaRussia (forthcoming)SerbiaUkraineThis series is the first to systematically examine the application of constitutional, civil, and criminal laws; categorize them by right; and provide examples and practical tips. As such, the guides are useful for medical professionals, public health mangers, Ministries of Health and Justice personnel, patient advocacy groups, and patients themselves.Advancing Human Rights in Patient Care: The Law in Seven Transitional Countries is a compendium that supplements the practitioner guides. It provides the first comparative overview of legal norms, practice cannons, and procedures for addressing rights in health care in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Russia, and Ukraine.A Legal Fellow in Human Rights in each country is undertaking the updating of each guide and building the field of human rights in patient care through trainings and the development of materials, networks, and jurisprudence. Fellows are recent law graduates based at a local organization with expertise and an interest in expanding work in law, human rights, and patient care. To learn more about the fellowships, please visit health-rights.org

Advancing Human Rights in Patient Care: Practitioner Guides

May 1, 2013

Health systems can too often be places of punishment, coercion, and violations of basic rights—rather than places of treatment and care. In many cases, existing laws and tools that provide remedies are not adequately used to protect rights.This Practitioner Guide series presents practical how-to manuals for lawyers interested in taking cases around human rights in patient care. The manuals examine patient and provider rights and responsibilities, as well as procedures for protection through both the formal court system and alternative mechanisms in 10 countries.Each Practitioner Guide is country-specific, supplementing coverage of the international and regional framework with national standards and procedures in the following:ArmeniaGeorgiaKazakhstanKyrgyzstanMacedoniaMoldova (forthcoming)RomaniaRussia (forthcoming)SerbiaUkraineThis series is the first to systematically examine the application of constitutional, civil, and criminal laws; categorize them by right; and provide examples and practical tips. As such, the guides are useful for medical professionals, public health mangers, Ministries of Health and Justice personnel, patient advocacy groups, and patients themselves.Advancing Human Rights in Patient Care: The Law in Seven Transitional Countries is a compendium that supplements the practitioner guides. It provides the first comparative overview of legal norms, practice cannons, and procedures for addressing rights in health care in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Russia, and Ukraine.A Legal Fellow in Human Rights in each country is undertaking the updating of each guide and building the field of human rights in patient care through trainings and the development of materials, networks, and jurisprudence. Fellows are recent law graduates based at a local organization with expertise and an interest in expanding work in law, human rights, and patient care. To learn more about the fellowships, please visit health-rights.org.

Special Schools as a Resource for Inclusive Education

October 5, 2012

Special Schools as a Resource for Inclusive Education examines inclusive education reform efforts by the Open Society foundation in Armenia in communities with special and mainstream schools. These efforts evolved into a project to transform three special schools for children with disabilities into resource centers to help mainstream schools implementing inclusive education practices.Special Schools as a Resource for Inclusive Education outlines the possibilities and challenges of implementing change, making it a valuable resource for policymakers, administrators, donors, teachers, and parents. 

Buyer Beware? Global Fund Grants and Procurement of Harm Reduction Supplies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

October 31, 2009

Assesses the quality of supplies for needle and syringe programs procured with grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; examines decision-making and procurement processes; highlights best practices; and recommends improvements.