Clear all

183 results found

reorder grid_view

Use of Predictive Analytic Tools to Assess Technological Emergences and Acquisition Targets

June 2, 2022

The United States has been the international leader in science and technology of importance to national security for three-quarters of a century. However, the development by other nations of their own science and technology capabilities, in concert with and fueled by increasing globalization and connectivity of economic and technological development, has increased competition for technological leadership. The authors use patent filings to analyze the current relative positions of the United States and other countries in selected technology areas of interest to the Department of the Air Force: additive manufacturing, artificial intelligence, ceramics, quantum, sensors, and space.Areas of technological emergence were identified by detecting rapid growth in cumulative patent applications in specific technology areas and whether this occurred in the United States or China. The authors also describe and analyze the patent portfolios of U.S. companies that were early filers in these areas, focusing on small or medium-size companies that were not already owned or controlled by foreign entities; this, in turn, enabled identification of companies that had specific leading technological capabilities that could make them attractive for possible foreign acquisition. The authors propose a method to simultaneously identify connected areas of technological emergence and the companies with leading capabilities in these areas.

Winning the Web: How Beijing Exploits Search Results to Shape Views of Xinjiang and COVID-19

May 27, 2022

As the war in Ukraine unfolds, Russian propaganda about the conflict has gotten a boost from a friendly source: government officials and state media out of Beijing. In multiple languages and regions around the world, China's "wolf warrior" diplomats and state media routinely amplify Kremlin conspiracy theories rationalizing President Vladimir Putin's invasion, and undermining the credibility and appeal of the United States, NATO, and independent media — even as China declines to endorse the Kremlin's adventurism wholesale. This spring, for example, China's messengers promoted the baseless Russian claim that the United States has been supporting a biological weapons program in Ukraine -- at times, more aggressively than Russia itself.Because Russian state media have been deamplified or banned by multiple Western social media platforms, Beijing's messaging could play an outsized role in channeling Kremlin talking points to audiences around the world. These narratives do not just spread on social media. Beijing's state-funded publishers have considerable success in a domain that has received comparatively little attention: search results.For months, our team has been tracking how China has exploited search engine results on Xinjiang and COVID-19, two subjects that are geopolitically salient to Beijing — Xinjiang, because the Chinese government seeks to push back on condemnation of its rights record; COVID-19, because it seeks to deflect criticism for its early mishandling of the pandemic. In both cases, Beijing is quite focused on positioning itself as a responsible global leader and softening perceptions to the contrary. To evaluate these concerns, we compiled daily data over a 120-day period on 12 terms related to Xinjiang and COVID-19 from five different sources: (1) Google Search; (2) Google News; (3) Bing Search; (4) Bing News; and (5) YouTube.

China’s Role in the Russia-Ukraine Conflict

May 14, 2022

On the 24th of February 2022, the Russian Federation began the military invasion of Ukraine after recognizing and assuring the security of the people republics of the Luhansk and Donetsk regions in the east of Ukraine. The following images of Russian troops invading the country combined with Putin's political rhetoric on removing the 'neo-Nazis' in Kyiv and the acute need to bring order and de-nazify the country have been a shock to Europe and the international system. The ongoing conflict is the latest manifestation of Russia's increasingly revisionist ambitions towards the current American-led international order, an order that academic scholars increasingly argue is under threat by both revisionist and emerging powers. One of which is the People's Republic of China, a state that not only historically has enjoyed strong political ties with Russia, but also possesses territorial ambitions that parallel the current situation in Ukraine. An observation that is increasingly made by western media and academics has been drawing the parallel towards China's calculated nature as a selectively revisionist state but its ongoing territorial disputes in the region of the South China Sea has been the subject of increasing attention. Specifically, the People's Republic of China's tenuous relationship with Taiwan is perceived to be the next area of confrontation and revisionist efforts toward the rules-based international order. This observation has only been strengthened as the Beijing has failed to take a clear position towards the conflict, intentionally leaving its position ambiguous: the absence of recognizing the conflict in Ukraine as an aggressive war led by Russia in combination with recently abstaining on a vote condemning the conflict in the United Nations has only served to fuel fears and heighten tensions.To that extent, this report seeks to determine and understand the plan and potential policy direction that Beijing may pursue while examining the restrictions and considerations that may dictate its future decisions. China's position and role as one of the largest economies in the global market and in proximity to vital economic routes and sea lanes of communication ensure that any conflict in the region would have wide-ranging and damaging implications and consequences. Concretely, the objective of this article is to examine and determine the manner and impact in which the Russo-Ukrainian war will have on Chinese foreign policy and what limitations and opportunities do the regime face in either constructively engaging in advocating for a de-escalation of the violence or utilizing the conflict as a road map for its ambitions. The report systematically examines the economic and political incentives and relations China possesses with both the Ukraine and Russia before examining parallels between Taiwan and Ukraine and determining if China possesses the capabilities and political motivation to become a mediator to bring about an end to the conflict. 

Two Presidents, One Agenda: A Blueprint for South Korea and the United States to Address the Challenges of the 2020s and Beyond

May 11, 2022

President Biden and South Korea's new president, Yoon Suk-yeol, have a historic opportunity to forge a closer U.S.-R.O.K. alliance. Two Presidents, One Agenda: A Blueprint for South Korea and the United States to Address the Challenges of the 2020s and Beyond is a series of articles that present the two presidents with specific policy recommendations addressing the most significant security and economic challenges and opportunities the two allies face in the years ahead. The articles are divided into two major categories: the shifting geopolitics of Northeast Asia, and economic and trade issues. There are 12 topics total under these two major areas. For each of the bigger geostrategic and economic issues, prominent experts – one from the United States, the other from the ROK—present recommendations on how each of their countries can deal with these challenges. For more narrow issues, a single expert, either American or Korean, offers recommendations. All of the writers are leading experts in their field with significant scholarly credentials. In addition, many have extensive government experience as well. Given all the shifts transforming the international environment, the United States and South Korea cannot afford a "business as usual" approach to their relations. This essay collection will chart a way forward for both administrations.

China’s Partnership With Russia Seen as Serious Problem for the U.S.

April 28, 2022

As war rages in Ukraine – one which China thus far has refused to condemn – Americans are acutely concerned about the partnership between China and Russia. Around nine-in-ten U.S. adults say it's at least a somewhat serious problem for the United States, and a 62% majority say it's a very serious problem – more than say the same about any of the other six problems asked about, including China's involvement in politics in the U.S., its policies on human rights and tensions between China and Taiwan, among others. 

Write for Rights 2021 Campaign Report

April 12, 2022

In 2021 Write for Rights (W4R) was 20 years old. Beginning as grassroots activism in Poland, the campaign now sees over 70 Amnesty entities taking part and people in 120 countries around the world taking action either in person or online.Covid-19 continued to impact campaigning for Write for Rights, with many countries still imposing strict rules around group gatherings. There was however light at the end of the tunnel for some national entities, who did manage to hold in person events. For those who couldn't, the innovations and 'outside the box' thinking continued, with creativity and technology helping make restrictions less restrictive!As we rapidly head into planning for Write for Rights 2022, now is the time to reflect on what we all did together and the amazing ways we worked for positive human rights change in the lives of 10 individuals and communities at risk. 

The Digital Silk Road and China’s Influence on Standard Setting

April 4, 2022

China is striving to become a leader in international standard setting, and the Digital Silk Road, part of China's Belt and Road Initiative to expand its global infrastructure and markets, is key to realizing this goal. Both roads depend on standard connectivity, fuelled by Chinese private companies that are the driving force behind China's growing role as a leader in technology development and shaping standards in both domestic and global markets. However, China faces strong competition to gain more influence in international standard-setting bodies, which are dominated by the European Union and the United States.

Owning the Conversation: Assessing Responses to Russian and Chinese Information Operations Around COVID-19

March 31, 2022

The crisis around COVID-19 and the resulting "infodemic" has been exploited by authoritarian regimes to spread propaganda and disinformation among populations around the world. The Russian Federation and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) have used the pandemic to engage in information warfare, spread divisive content, advance conspiracy theories, and promote public health propaganda that undermines US and European efforts to fight the pandemic.In 2021, the Center for European Policy Analysis (CEPA) published two reports, Information Bedlam: Russian and Chinese Information Operations During COVID-19 and Jabbed in the Back: Mapping Russian and Chinese Information Operations During COVID-19, comparing how the Kremlin and CCP have deployed information operations around the COVID-19 pandemic, virus origins, and efficacy of the vaccines to influence targeted populations globally, using the infodemic as a diplomatic and geopolitical weapon. The CCP mainly spread COVID-19 narratives to shape perceptions about the origins of the coronavirus and often push narratives to shun responsibility. Meanwhile, the Kremlin recycled existing narratives, pushing and amplifying them via validators and unsuspecting people in order to sow internal divisions and further exploit polarized views in the West about the efficacy of vaccines, treatments, origins of new variants, and impact to the population. While the world has learned about new COVID-19 variants, such as Omicron, China and Russia have evolved their tactics to spread COVID-19 disinformation and propaganda and further sow doubt and confuse the population about the pandemic.As Russia and China's tactics evolve, this policy brief examines whether Western institutions, including governments, digital platforms, and nongovernmental organizations, have been able to counter information warfare around this unprecedented crisis. This paper examines a broad range of initiatives and responses to counter COVID-19 disinformation coming from Russia and China, and to strengthen societal resilience more broadly. Because addressing this challenge requires a whole-of-society approach, this report highlights government, technology, and civil society interventions, both in Europe and in the US, identifying what works and where there are existing gaps.Of note, the interventions and related assessments presented here are based on currently available data. It is important to highlight that governments regularly pass new regulations and measures, and digital platforms continue to evolve their policy, product, and enforcement actions in response to COVID-19 disinformation.

Untapped Opportunities for Climate Action: An Assessment of Food Systems in Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

March 22, 2022

A summary report providing a synthesis of the 14 country assessments with recommendations and priority actions.

Confronting the Climate Crisis with Food Systems Transformation: Stories of Action from 14 countries

March 22, 2022

Integrating food systems transformation into the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) – the national climate actions at the heart of the Paris Agreement, is critical to delivering on interconnected ecological, biodiversity, health, economic, social, and cultural goals. Taking a food systems approach builds climate resilience and results in a diversity of context-specific solutions for food production, distribution, consumption, and waste. Yet, food systems are rarely prioritized in climate policy. This catalogue of global Case Studies complements a suite of publications that are designed to centre food systems transformation in future climate debate and policy.

Business as Usual: How major weapons exporters arm the world’s conflicts

March 3, 2022

This research provides the first global analysis of how conflict in, or involving, a recipient state, impacts exporters' willingness supply arms. It analyses the top eleven global arms suppliers over the ten-year period 2009-2018 Listed in order by the volume of major conventional weapons transfers, these global sales leaders are: the United States, Russia, Germany, France, China, the United Kingdom, Spain, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, and Ukraine. These countries assert widely varying formal policies regarding arms exports, but the empirical record is, for the most part, remarkably similar.

China Issue Guide: Environmental Philanthropy

March 1, 2022

This report is the second in the four-part series examining "philanthropy with Chinesecharacteristics." The report looks at individual and corporate giving to environmental issues through the lenses of themes and approaches.