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From Pollution to Solution in Six African Cities (French Version)

November 23, 2023

La pollution de l'air est un véritable fléau silencieux pour l'Afrique. Chaque année, l'air pollué tue plus d'Africains que l'eau insalubre, l'assainissement et le lavage des mains combinés. En plus du million d'Africains qui meurent chaque année de la pollution de l'air provenant de sources intérieures et extérieures, des millions d'autres vies doivent vivre avec ses conséquences dévastatrices. La situation est bien pire dans les villes, où les activités hautement polluantes nuisent à la santé des habitants et à l'économie. Une étude réalisée par Dalberg Advisors pour le Clean Air Fund révèle que si rien n'est fait, la pollution de l'air coûtera collectivement à Accra, au Caire, à Johannesburg, à Lagos, à Nairobi et à Yaoundé environ 138 milliards de dollars US en décès prématurés et en absentéisme des travailleurs d'ici à 2040, ce qui représente 8 % de leurs PIB actuels combinés.L'urbanisation rapide du continent ne devrait pas se faire au détriment de la santé de ses citoyens. Les villes africaines peuvent opter pour une croissance verte, dans laquelle les investissements visant à lutter contre les principales sources de pollution atmosphérique contribuent à améliorer la productivité des travailleurs et les budgets nationaux de santé, et à créer des lieux de vie sains, équitables et prospères. Les gouvernements africains prennent de plus en plus conscience de l'importance cruciale de ce défi. L'Évaluation environnementale intégrée en Afrique présente les mesures nécessaires pour parvenir à une croissance verte, mais la mise en œuvre de ce projet pour l'Afrique nécessite une action plus globale, coordonnée et à plus grande échelle. Cette analyse indique que dans les six villes étudiées, des mesures prises aujourd'hui pourraient permettre d'éviter 109 000 décès prématurés et la perte de 19 milliards de dollars US d'ici à 2040.Se fondant sur des études de cas de meilleures pratiques à travers le continent africain, cette note stratégique formule des recommandations susceptibles d'aider les gouvernements à favoriser une croissance économique verte en milieu urbain. Pour relever ce défi, il est essentiel d'investir dans la bonne gouvernance et la législation, d'améliorer le suivi de la qualité de l'air, de mener des politiques de réduction des émissions scientifiquement fondées, de mettre en place des modèles de partenariat et des formations efficaces, et d'améliorer l'accès au financement de la lutte contre le changement climatique. Ces recommandations représentent la première étape de conception et de mise en œuvre d'actions adaptées au niveau local que les gouvernements doivent prendre en compte.Air pollution is Africa's silent killer. Each year, air pollution kills more Africans than HIV / AIDS and malaria combined. In addition to the 1 million Africans who die from diseases caused by indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution annually, millions more have to live with its devastating consequences. This problem is worse in cities, where highly polluting activities stunt the health of both their residents and economies. Analysis undertaken for the Clean Air Fund by Dalberg Advisors finds that left unchecked, air pollution will collectively cost Accra, Cairo, Johannesburg, Lagos, Nairobi and Yaoundé an estimated US$138bn in premature deaths and worker absenteeism by 2040, equivalent to 8% of their current combined GDPs.The continent's rapid urban growth should not come at the expense of the health of its citizens. African cities can choose to put themselves on the path of green growth, in which investments to tackle the major sources of air pollution bring about benefits to worker productivity, national health budgets and help create healthy, equitable and prosperous places to live. African governments are increasingly aware of this challenge. The Africa Integrated Assessment outlines the steps needed to reach green growth, but realising this blueprint for Africa requires more comprehensive, coordinated and scaled action. This analysis shows that across the six case study cities, actions taken today could prevent 109,000 premature deaths and prevent the loss of US$19bn by 2040.Drawing on best-practice case studies from across the African continent, this policy brief lays out recommendations that can help governments unleash green urban economic growth. Investments in good governance and legislation, better air quality monitoring, evidence-based emission reduction policies, effective partnership models and training, and improved access to climate financing are essential to meeting this challenge. These recommendations represent the first step for governments to consider as they design and deliver locally-tailored action.

From Pollution to Solution in Six African Cities

November 23, 2023

Air pollution is Africa's silent killer. Each year, air pollution kills more Africans than HIV / AIDS and malaria combined. In addition to the 1 million Africans who die from diseases caused by indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution annually, millions more have to live with its devastating consequences. This problem is worse in cities, where highly polluting activities stunt the health of both their residents and economies. Analysis undertaken for the Clean Air Fund by Dalberg Advisors finds that left unchecked, air pollution will collectively cost Accra, Cairo, Johannesburg, Lagos, Nairobi and Yaoundé an estimated US$138bn in premature deaths and worker absenteeism by 2040, equivalent to 8% of their current combined GDPs.The continent's rapid urban growth should not come at the expense of the health of its citizens. African cities can choose to put themselves on the path of green growth, in which investments to tackle the major sources of air pollution bring about benefits to worker productivity, national health budgets and help create healthy, equitable and prosperous places to live. African governments are increasingly aware of this challenge. The Africa Integrated Assessment outlines the steps needed to reach green growth, but realising this blueprint for Africa requires more comprehensive, coordinated and scaled action. This analysis shows that across the six case study cities, actions taken today could prevent 109,000 premature deaths and prevent the loss of US$19bn by 2040.Drawing on best-practice case studies from across the African continent, this policy brief lays out recommendations that can help governments unleash green urban economic growth. Investments in good governance and legislation, better air quality monitoring, evidence-based emission reduction policies, effective partnership models and training, and improved access to climate financing are essential to meeting this challenge. These recommendations represent the first step for governments to consider as they design and deliver locally-tailored action.

The World's Most Neglected Displacement Crises 2022

June 1, 2023

Each year, the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) publishes a report of the ten most neglected displacement crises in the world. The purpose is to focus on the plight of people whose suffering rarely makes international headlines, who receive little or no assistance, and who never become the centre of attention for international diplomacy efforts. This is the list for 2022.

CTAP Final Report: The COVID-19 Transparency and Accountability Journey So Far

May 1, 2023

The pandemic has both exacerbated and exposed existing health sector challenges across the world. During the second phase of the COVID-19 Transparency and Accountability Project (CTAP), partners across 9 African countries utilized the multiple challenges of the crisis as a window of opportunity to advance health policy priorities.The organizations leading the CTAP work on the ground pivoted to create inclusive platforms for citizens to be informed and heard at the grassroots level, build coalitions with other CSOs to have greater collective impact, and call on governments for change through advocacy, and increasingly, collaboration to design and implement better policies going forward.This report provides a brief overview of what we did and what we learned, illustrative snapshots from each CTAP partner country, as well as insights into cross-country collaboration and the way forward. Together with our partners CODE and BudgIT, Global Integrity has helped to facilitate the CTAP journey since 2020 and served as a learning partner for the implementing organizations in Africa.

COVID-19 Transparency and Accountability Project (CTAP): Lesson Report

September 1, 2022

COVID-19 Transparency and Accountability Project (CTAP) is an initiative that seeks to promote accountability and transparency through the tracking of COVID-19 intervention funds across 7 African countries – Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone. This learning report explores its first phase.

Fighting Kleptocracy with Human Stories in Five Central African Countries Learning Report

May 23, 2022

Kleptocracy is a complex and evolving threat with dire implications for people in countries around the world and security implications for the world's democracies. There is no single, replicable way to tackle and solve the problem. However, kleptocracy's transnational dimension emphasizes the need to coordinate internationally and at various levels, and requires governments and civil society to build on each other's work and strategies. If kleptocrats are connected and enabled through a network of facilitators in the west, we need to be connected and support those whose resources are being stolen.While there are many efforts to tackle different aspects of kleptocracy; from beneficial ownership registries, to global sanctions, to criminal investigations and investigative reporting, very little has been done at the country level. At Global Integrity (GI) we believe those at the frontlines are best placed to figure out how to best tackle kleptocracy in their countries, which can then inform global strategies.

The Urgency of Designating Cameroon for Temporary Protected Status

March 3, 2022

Cameroon is grappling with multiple humanitarian crises—including an armed conflict—that have increased insecurity, destabilized the nation, and caused its people immense suffering. Under existing immigration law, the U.S. secretary of homeland security is authorized to designate a country for Temporary Protected Status (TPS) if it meets certain conditions that temporarily preclude its nationals from returning safely. Deteriorating conditions in Cameroon along with ongoing humanitarian crises exacerbated by the pandemic make return dangerous and warrant immediate humanitarian protection for Cameroonians residing in the United States. Reports indicate that current U.S. asylum policies have failed to provide Cameroonians with due process when seeking asylum. As a result, many Cameroonians have suffered ill treatment and abuse in immigration detention, where they have faced discrimination because of their race, forcing many to return to a country where they may face grave harm and persecution.The Center for American Progress estimates that there are up to 40,000 noncitizen Cameroonians living in the United States—32,700 adults and 7,300 children—who could be made eligible for protection by a TPS designation. Given the worsening crisis in Cameroon, various Black immigrants' rights advocacy organizations such as Cameroon Advocacy Network, Haitian Bridge Alliance, and UndocuBlack Network—along with members of Congress—have been advocating to temporarily protect them from deportation. It is urgent that the U.S. government do so now and provide protection and stability for Cameroonian nationals living in the United States.

“How Can You Throw Us Back?”: Asylum Seekers Abused in the US and Deported to Harm in Cameroon

February 10, 2022

This report traces what happened to the estimated 80 to 90 Cameroonians deported from the United States on two flights in October and November 2020, and others deported in 2021 and 2019. People returned to Cameroon faced arbitrary arrest and detention; enforced disappearances; torture, rape, and other violence; extortion; unfair prosecutions; confiscation of their national IDs; harassment; and abuses against their relatives. Many also reported experiencing excessive force, medical neglect, and other mistreatment in Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) custody in the US.

No One Is Spared: Abuses Against Older People in Armed Conflict

February 1, 2022

This report describes patterns of abuses against older people affected by armed conflict in Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, South Sudan, Syria, and Ukraine. It also draws on the situation of serious protracted violence in two English-speaking regions of Cameroon, Myanmar security force atrocities against older ethnic Rohingya in Rakhine State, and the experiences of older refugees in Lebanon displaced by conflict in Syria. It also includes abuses against older people in the 2020 armed conflict in the ethnic-Armenian-majority enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh.

A Synthesised Report on the Impact of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic on Civil Society Organisations in West Africa

July 5, 2021

This report presents a synthesis of the findings on the impact of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic on civil society organisations (CSOs) in West Africa, with particular focus on Cameroon, The Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. In particular, the report document show the COVID-19 pandemic has affected CSOs' operations, funding prospects and relationships with donors and stakeholders. Given that CSOs are agile actors with an agency, this report further analyses' strategic responses for mitigating the effects of the pandemic in ensuring their short-term survival and long-term sustainability. The findings, therefore, present data-based evidence to inform stakeholders' engagement with West African CSOs.The implications of the findings for policy and practice are further discussed.The findings in this study are informed by a sequential explanatory mixed-method design which involves first collecting and analysing the quantitative data followed by qualitative data. As part of the quantitative phase of this study, a survey questionnaire was administered to 313 CSOs across the six countries (i.e., Cameroon – 36 CSOs; The Gambia-16 CSOs; Ghana-86CSOs; Liberia-27 CSOs; Nigeria-80 CSOs; and SierraLeone-68 CSOs) between June and July 2020. Following the quantitative data administration and analysis,6 focus group discussions were conducted with 48 CSOs who first participated in the quantitative phase between July and September 2020. Additional, key informant interviews were conducted as part of the data collection in each country. The final analysis in this report integrated the quantitative and qualitative data, which provided nuanced perspectives on the impact of COVID-19 on CSOs' in West Africa. 

The Anglophone Crisis in Cameroon and the Imperative of the Cohabitation Pact Building Peace from the “Great National Dialogue”?

April 22, 2021

This paper intends to analyse the underpinnings of the Grand National Dialogue as a strategic and operational framework for the construction of a public problem in the crisis between the Cameroonian government and the separatist movements of the North West and South West. The dynamics and related trajectories within the framework of a complex otherness reflect the efforts of the public authorities to domesticate violence and establish the imperative of a "one and indivisible Cameroon" and of living together as structuring frameworks of solutions to crises in the country. The stake of this Grand National Dialogue also refers to the logic of de-internationalization of the treatment of the crisis; however, this dialogue did not have the desired effect. The denial for a long time focused on the crisis, combined with the problem of underdevelopment accentuated by nepotism, ethnic exclusion, corruption and marginalization, the sequence and consequence of bad governance, has been used by the separatists as a pretext to resort to arms as a means of expressing their 'grievances'.

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Civil Society Organisations in Cameroon

March 30, 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic and its spread in Cameroon poses a significant threat to the population and diverse sectors of society. The civil society sector seems to be greatly hit in terms of its operations, programmes, and relationships with donors. For this reason, this study was commissioned to assess and document the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on civil society organisations' (CSOs') operations and programmes in Cameroon.A mixed study design (quantitative and qualitative) was used to collect data from 36 CSOs in Cameroon. A survey questionnaire was administered via SurveyMonkey. In the same vein, a focus group discussion (FGD) and expert interviews were also carried out with five CSO representatives to investigate and understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on civil society's resilience and operations in the country.