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No One Is Spared: Abuses Against Older People in Armed Conflict

February 1, 2022

This report describes patterns of abuses against older people affected by armed conflict in Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, South Sudan, Syria, and Ukraine. It also draws on the situation of serious protracted violence in two English-speaking regions of Cameroon, Myanmar security force atrocities against older ethnic Rohingya in Rakhine State, and the experiences of older refugees in Lebanon displaced by conflict in Syria. It also includes abuses against older people in the 2020 armed conflict in the ethnic-Armenian-majority enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh.

Amplifying Voices: Decade Edition 2005–2015

January 22, 2020

This is a special edition of Amplifying Voices that includes highlights of the Open Society Initiative for East Africa's work from 2005 to 2015. Amplifying Voices documents different journeys the foundation has traveled with its partners since its launch in 2005 and the collective efforts to realize human rights and freedoms for all.Amplifying Voices pays particular attention to those on the margins of society, including stories of working on the forced sterilization of HIV-positive women or those with mental health illnesses, promoting the rights of sex workers, or addressing the question of human rights and counterterrorism.The Open Society Initiative for East Africa started as a one-program initiative in 2005 in Kenya and today has grown to include eight programs in the region. Geographically, the foundation now works in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, South Sudan, and Sudan. It addresses issues including health and rights, disability rights, and food security.

Economic Empowerment for Women Affected by Conflict

May 1, 2019

Since 1993, Women for Women International has served more than 479,000 marginalised women affected by conflict. Through our yearlong programme marginalised women are supported to: earn and save money; influence decisions; improve their well-being; and connect to networks for support. We see promising results in our monitoring and evaluation efforts.Based on our evidence and complemented by global studies, we highlight four key, interlinked components that are necessary for effectively supporting women's economic empowerment in conflict:1. Work with men to address discriminatory gender norms. All members of society suffer from patriarchal attitudes and have a role to play in promoting gender equality – these are not just "women's issues".2. Holistic and integrated programming. Women's needs and experiences in conflict are complex and interlinked. Solely economic interventions alone have not proven to yield long-term benefits.3. Build women's economic knowledge and skills. This is vital to supporting them to build agency and influence decisions, increase their income and increase their resilience to economic shocks.4. Informal and formal support networks. In the absence of government and financial services, networks are key to supporting women to access financial support, particularly for savings and income.In conclusion, this paper makes five recommendations for international governments and donors to effectively deliver on international commitments and support marginalised women's economic empowerment in conflict-affected contexts:1. Urgently increase funding for women's rights organisations.2. Support economic empowerment programmes that include men in their programme design.3. Target the most marginalised women.4. Support holistic and integrated programming.5. Listen to the needs of marginalised women and actively include them in the design, implementation and review of economic empowerment programmes.

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Post-Emergency Contexts: A study on establishing sustainable service delivery models

December 4, 2018

Large-scale and complex emergencies often occur in countries where government institutions have weak coping capacity. They may struggle to deliver essential services routinely, even in non-emergency situations. This has serious implications for the way in which emergency water, sanitation and hygiene services are managed long-term and in the transition from emergency to post-emergency situations.UNHCR and Oxfam commissioned a study to understand more about how emergency WASH services are delivered, and to identify how the provision of infrastructure can lead to sustainable service delivery and a more professional management mechanism. As many humanitarian crises are protracted in nature, emergency WASH services need to be sustained once humanitarian agencies depart. This report aims to review and identify alternative service delivery options, and to provide some pragmatic guidance that can be incorporated into emergency response programmes and tested, evaluated and built on in the future.

Supporting sustainable water service delivery in a protracted crisis: Professionalizing community-led systems in South Sudan

April 27, 2018

This report shares Oxfam's experience with a water treatment plant community-led operator in Juba, South Sudan. It contributes to the debate on the role that communities can play in the process of managing water supply systems amid protracted crises. The report gives guidance on how to support professionalization of community services by providing business, governance and institutional support, and calls on donors and implementing agencies to develop WASH programmes which consider medium-term institutional support that ensures sustainability and pro-poor accessibility.

South Sudan Gender Analysis: A snapshot situation analysis of the differential impact of the humanitarian crisis on women, girls, men and boys in South Sudan

March 6, 2017

The continuing conflict in South Sudan, which began in December 2013, is having a devastating impact on the lives and livelihoods of millions of South Sudanese women, men, boys and girls, with the result that South Sudan is now one of the most food-insecure countries in the world. Women and men of all ages are suffering from the effects of conflict, including abuses and loss of control over, and access to, vital resources.This report presents the results of a gender analysis field study conducted in South Sudan in May-June 2016. The study was carried out as part of the ECHO-ERC project 'Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice'. The report highlights the different impacts the conflict is having on women and men; whether and how these needs are being addressed; and where opportunities may exist for UN agencies, donors, South Sudanese authorities and civil society to incorporate a stronger gender element into their programmes and responses. It also aims to explain how programmes can be gender-sensitive in times of protracted conflict. 

Frontline: Helping Women Deliver in South Sudan

September 15, 2016

Claire Reading is a midwife in Somerset, UK, who has worked in England's National Health Service since 2007. On her second mission with Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), she is serving as a midwife supervisor at a primary care health clinic in the remote South Sudanese town, Bentiu.

Missed Out: The role of local actors in the humanitarian response in the South Sudan conflict

April 21, 2016

Since the latest conflict erupted in South Sudan in December 2013, more than 2.3 million people have been forced to flee their homes and 3.9 million (approximately one third of the population) do not have enough to eat. All humanitarian actors struggle to respond to these acute needs against a context of chronic poverty, ongoing conflict and insecurity, limited infrastructure and a significant funding shortfall. This study seeks to understand the strengths and challenges of working with national and local nongovernmental organisations in South Sudan's conflict-driven emergency, and reviews how the broader humanitarian system facilitates or prevents their involvement.This paper is the latest in a series of research papers on the subject of humanitarian partnerships. Missed Opportunities: The case for strengthening national and local partnership-based humanitarian responses established the value of local and national organisations in responding to humanitarian emergencies, and Missed Again: Making space for partnership in the Typhoon Haiyan response looked at partnerships within the context of a disaster caused by a natural hazard. 

Humanitarian Quality Assurance - South Sudan: Evaluation of the 2013 Juba conflict response

January 6, 2016

This evaluation report is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2014/15, selected for review under the humanitarian response thematic area using the application of Oxfam’s Humanitarian Indicator Toolkit (HIT). The report presents the findings from the evaluation carried out between January and February 2015, of Oxfam’s humanitarian response to the 2013 Juba conflict in South Sudan.On 15 December 2013, heavy fighting between factions of the South Sudanese armed forces broke out in the country’s capital city, Juba, and spread rapidly across the country. In Juba, civilians immediately sought refuge in the UNMISS (United Nations Missions in South Sudan) bases: Tom Ping and UN House. Within one week an estimated 25,000 people were sheltering in the UNMISS compounds, while attacks continued across the city. Oxfam was one of the first agencies to respond to the needs of the first IDPs in Juba, supplying water and installing sanitation facilities in UN House, and supporting the World Food Programme’s (WFP) food distributions in both UN House and Tom Ping compounds. Once water supply was established, Oxfam added a hygiene promotion component, as well as diverse Emergency Food Security and Vulnerable Livelihoods interventions to complement the food supplied by WFP. From January 2014 Oxfam conducted rapid assessments and launched responses in other states. This evaluation concentrated on the response in the UN House IDP camp, Juba only.The Humanitarian Indicator Tool (HIT) is a methodology designed to estimate the degree to which the programme meets 13 recognized quality standards via a desk review.Read more about Oxfam's Effectiveness Reviews.

Effectiveness Review: Evaluation of Oxfam's South Sudan Humanitarian Response

February 12, 2014

This report presents the findings of an effectiveness review on Oxfam's response to the 2012/2013 conflict response in South Sudan that was undertaken through the application of Oxfam's Humanitarian Indicator Tool. Overall the response scored 58% and met or almost met five of the 11 standards. Although this is below the 60% cut-off point, the issues of funding and the constraints of working under difficult conditions need to be taken into account. Despite having measures in place, it was found that Oxfam was not prepared for an emergency as much as they should have been in a country known for conflict and weather-related emergencies. There were, however, genuine efforts to address community needs and to elicit feedback, which in turn led to changes in facility design. Measures to protect the community and to reduce conflict were in place as well as efforts to consult with women and address their needs.

Challenges to Security, Livelihoods, and Gender Justice in South Sudan: The situation of Dinka agro-pastoralist communities in Lakes and Warrap States

March 13, 2013

In South Sudan, widespread euphoria following independence in July 2011 has given way to disappointment that expected peace dividends have not materialised. Many South Sudanese are experiencing insecurity, a lack of access to basic services, and increasing inequalities. Pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities in remote border areas are particularly affected by insecurity and by a lack of social services, and women are particularly marginalised. This report is the result of Oxfam research to enable the needs and views of conflict-affected communities to be voiced, heard, and addressed, particularly in relation to security and livelihoods and with an emphasis on women's participation. It focuses on the security concerns expressed by the communities themselves: conflict within and between communities, cattle raiding, and violence against women.

The Downstream Impacts of Ethiopia's Gibe III Dam

January 1, 2013

If Ethiopia completes the Gibe III Dam, now under construction on the Middle Omo River, and continues to press ahead with large-scale irrigation developments in the Lower Omo Basin, the result will be a cascade of hydrological, ecological and socio-economic impacts that will generate a region-wide crisis for indigenous livelihoods and biodiversity and thoroughly destabilize the Ethiopia-Kenyan borderlands around Lake Turkana. The long-term effect could parallel what has happened to Central Asia's Aral Sea, one of the planet's worst environmental disasters. This African crisis is fast becoming an issue that will increasingly engage the international community.This paper summarizes the technical and scientific evidence derived from decades of high-quality research on and around the lake by local and international specialists, as well as recent studies of current threats. It then reviews expected consequences of a variety of potential strategies that might be pursued by various actors to oppose or moderate these threats.