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Housing, land and property in the context of climate change, disasters and displacement

July 10, 2023

This brief presents the Norwegian Refugee Council's knowledge and experience in addressing housing, land and property (HLP) issues associated with climate change, disasters and displacement, including those often aggravated by conflict. It is not a comprehensive catalogue of HLP issues, nor does it present the full breadth of NRC's operations. Rather, it reflects the organisation's experience in delivering information counselling and legal assistance (ICLA), shelter and settlements and other programmes, and draws on its role as lead and co-lead of inter-agency coordination. The brief documents examples of NRC's operations in Afghanistan, Iraq, Mozambique, Somalia and South Sudan, countries also identified for the work of the Special Adviser.

Community-Based Maternal and Newborn Health Care

May 1, 2023

A brief about IRC's multi-pronged initiative to expand access to care by bring life-saving MNH services closer to women and newborns within their homes and communities.

From “Innovation for Localization” to “Local Philanthropy, Localization and Power”

November 17, 2022

n 2021, five organizations – Save the Children Denmark, Network for Empowered Aid Response (NEAR), West Africa Civil Society Institute (WACSI), STAR Ghana Foundation (SGF) and the Global Fund for Community Foundations (GFCF) participated in an ambitious and experimental joint project.The aim of the project was to "test durable, locally rooted funding mechanisms" in Somalia and Ghana, with the broader purpose of contributing – by demonstration – to efforts within the international humanitarian aid and development sector to transform and localize aid. The purpose of this learning report, curated by the GFCF, is to capture some of the main insights and reflections ofthe participating organizations and to consider the broader implications of and lessons from the project. It focuses on the experiences of those involved and the larger question of how unorthodox configurations of actors and new and different kinds of partnerships might contribute towards transformative change within the international aid system. 

Hunger in a heating world: How the climate crisis is fuelling hunger in an already hungry world

September 16, 2022

This brief focuses on how climate change acts as a threat multiplier, worsening the existing risks and vulnerabilities to hunger for already disadvantaged people, particularly women, agricultural workers, and small-scale farmers. It explores major climatic events across seven regions where people are being worst affected: Asia's typhoons, East Africa's drought, South Africa's cyclones, the Sahel's drought, Latin America's dry corridor, the Pacific sea-level rise, and water scarcity in the Euphrates and Tigris River basins.

Hunger in a heating world: How the climate crisis is fuelling hunger in an already hungry world (French Version)

September 16, 2022

La présente note d'information se penche sur la façon dont les changements climatiques agissent comme un multiplicateur de risque, aggravant les menaces existantes et la vulnérabilité à la faim des personnes déjà défavorisées, en particulier les femmes, les travailleurs/euses agricoles et les petit·es exploitant·es. Elle passe en revue les principaux phénomènes météorologiques extrêmes survenant dans sept régions où les populations sont les plus touchées : les typhons en Asie, la sécheresse en Afrique de l'Est, les cyclones en Afrique du Sud, la sécheresse au Sahel, le « couloir de la sécheresse » en Amérique latine, l'élévation du niveau de la mer dans le Pacifique et le manque d'eau dans les bassins de l'Euphrate et du Tigre.This brief focuses on how climate change acts as a threat multiplier, worsening the existing risks and vulnerabilities to hunger for already disadvantaged people, particularly women, agricultural workers, and small-scale farmers. It explores major climatic events across seven regions where people are being worst affected: Asia's typhoons, East Africa's drought, South Africa's cyclones, the Sahel's drought, Latin America's dry corridor, the Pacific sea-level rise, and water scarcity in the Euphrates and Tigris River basins.

Hunger in a heating world: How the climate crisis is fuelling hunger in an already hungry world (Spanish Version)

September 16, 2022

Este documento analiza cómo el cambio climático funciona como un multiplicador de amenazas, agravando los riesgos y vulnerabilidades frente al hambre que actualmente afectan a las personas más desfavorecidas, especialmente a las mujeres, los trabajadores y trabajadoras agrícolas y los pequeños agricultores y agricultoras. Además, examina grandes catástrofes climáticas en siete de las regiones donde la poblacion se esta viendo mas afectada por sus efectos - los tifones en Asia, las sequias en Africa oriental, los ciclones en Africa meridional, las sequias en el Sahel, el Corredor Seco Centroamericano, la subida del nivel del mar en el Pacifico y la escasez de agua en las cuencas de los rios Eufrates y Tigris. This brief focuses on how climate change acts as a threat multiplier, worsening the existing risks and vulnerabilities to hunger for already disadvantaged people, particularly women, agricultural workers, and small-scale farmers. It explores major climatic events across seven regions where people are being worst affected: Asia's typhoons, East Africa's drought, South Africa's cyclones, the Sahel's drought, Latin America's dry corridor, the Pacific sea-level rise, and water scarcity in the Euphrates and Tigris River basins.

Covid-19 and the media: A pandemic of paradoxes

April 1, 2021

This report covers responses to the infringement of the right to freedom of information, misinformation on social media and the impact on public interest media caused by the Covid-19 pandemic with a human-rights based approach and gender-sensitive lens.As journalists on the frontline have supplied essential live-saving information to massively expanded audiences in need of reporting they could trust, advertising revenues have collapsed, leaving public interest media struggling to survive.The report features interviews with journalists from four IMS programme counties, Colombia, Ethiopia, Sri Lanka and Ukraine about the challenges created by the pandemic and case studies showcasing success stories from independent media outlets in Pakistan, the Philipines, Somalia and Zimbabwe.

From Early Warning to Early Action in Somalia: What can we learn to support early action to mitigate humanitarian crises?

September 29, 2017

More than three years after it was initiated in the aftermath of the 2011 famine, the early-warning, early-action trigger mechanism for Somalia remains a work in progress. This paper looks at how the mechanism has functioned during the 2016/7 drought crisis response, uncovers a widespread consensus about the value of the tool, and explores the challenges involved in developing the dashboard, generating support and putting in place an accountability framework. It looks for learning around the effectiveness of such tools, which could potentially support similar models in other countries. This paper also highlights suggestions from a range of stakeholders regarding actions that might support greater buy-in to the dashboard and broader collaboration at all levels, helping ensure the mechanism meets its aim of facilitating decision making for early action, thereby better protecting the people of Somalia.

Resilience in Ethiopia and Somaliland: Impact evaluation of the reconstruction project 'Development of Enabling Conditions for Pastoralist and Agro-Pastoralist Communities'

June 28, 2017

This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the resilience thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental impact evaluation carried out in November 2015 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the 'Contributing to the Development of Enabling Conditions for Human Security for Vulnerable Pastoralist and Agro-Pastoralist Communities' project.The project under review was implemented in the Somali region of Ethiopia and the Galbeed and Togdheer regions of Somaliland between July 2012 and June 2016. The project was carried out by Oxfam in partnership with several organisations, including Ogden Welfare and Development Association (OWDA), Community Development Service Association (CDSA), Somaliland Pastoral Forum (SOLPAF), Candlelight, Himilo Relief and Development Association (HIRDA), and The Horn of Africa Voluntary Youth Committee (HAVOYOCO). The project had three specific objectives: (1) make pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities more resilient to drought and conflict; (2) increase voice and representation of civil society, especially women's organisations and youth, in decision-making forums; and (3) raise cross-border issues affecting Ethiopia and Somaliland pastoralists and agro-pastoralists at regional and national forums.Read more about Oxfam's Effectiveness Reviews.

Livelihoods in Somalia: Impact evaluation of community driven livelihood and food security initiatives in Lower and Middle Juba Regions

November 26, 2015

This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2014/15, selected for review under the livelihoods thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in October 2014 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the community-driven livelihood and food security initiatives in Lower and Middle Juba Regions project.The project's overall objective was to contribute to improved income generation and food security of families in eleven regions in South Somalia. Project activities included a cash grant for household businesses; provision of donkey carts for transport services; restocking of livestock herds; donation of agricultural equipment; donation of other agricultural inputs such as seeds; support in rehabilitation of irrigation systems including the donation of water pumps; and provision of cash for work. It should be noted that agricultural activities, including support in rehabilitation of irrigation systems, were not given attention as planned and consequently few of these activities were actually carried out. The project activities were implemented by Oxfam in conjunction with a local partner organization - Wajir South Development Association (WASDA).For more information, the data for this effectiveness review is available through the UK Data Service. Read more about the Oxfam Effectiveness Reviews. 

Using Mobile Phones for Polio Prevention in Somalia: An evaluation of the 2013-14 interactive messaging and mobile voucher system deployed in hard to reach areas in Somalia

May 14, 2015

Oxfam, UNICEF and local partner Hijra developed a mobile phone based health promotion project in Somalia to support Polio prevention and control which began in November 2013. The project was implemented with two complementary components: pre-emptive community education delivered through interactive SMS on Polio prevention and distribution of water and sanitation items through SMS voucher redemption. This evaluation recommends that mobile phones are a relevant mechanism to deliver health and WASH information in Somalia.

Somalia Impact Report: The World Citizens Panel

May 12, 2015

The "World Citizens Panel" (WCP) was established by Oxfam Novib to measure the impact of its programmes among people living in poverty and injustice. The approach combines quantitative research (impact surveys) with qualitative research (stories of change) and gives participants a voice in evaluation, and the opportunity to learn how programmes can be improved and to contribute to public debate on the effectiveness of development cooperation.  This impact study of the programme in Somalia was carried out by Oxfam Novib, HIRDA and partners in Somalia in 2013/2014. The study included a broad set of indicators, covering major dimensions of poverty and injustice. Data collected by partners with the help of a smart phone app was transferred into a central data base, managed and analysed by the Oxfam Novib World Citizens Panel team.  This report describes the process and presents the major findings of the analysis which include:Impact on livelihoods: Significant differences between target group and control group were found with respect to increased income, increased value of assets and months of sufficient food.Project participation has a positive impact on school enrolment, but still much to do with respect to the quality of education.Child mortality among the target group was significantly lower than among the control group.Surprisingly, for a country like Somalia that continues to be instable and insecure, a large majority of the respondents have mentioned that they had no experience of physical damage due to disasters and neither do they feel a threat. In addition, few people have taken preventive measures regarding possible future disasters. But also few people feel capable to do so. There were no significant differences between the target group and control group on this topic.Access to information and the ability to talk about women’s rights is very limited in Somalia. Violence against women is a problem according to the majority of respondents.Despite many projects on gender and empowerment, talking about sexual and reproductive rights is still a taboo in many communities, both for our target groups and the control groups.The programme carried out a total of 6000 interviews: the major activities of respondents were sustainable livelihoods (27%), education (17%), humanitarian aid (12%), and women’s rights (12%).