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No One Is Spared: Abuses Against Older People in Armed Conflict

February 1, 2022

This report describes patterns of abuses against older people affected by armed conflict in Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, South Sudan, Syria, and Ukraine. It also draws on the situation of serious protracted violence in two English-speaking regions of Cameroon, Myanmar security force atrocities against older ethnic Rohingya in Rakhine State, and the experiences of older refugees in Lebanon displaced by conflict in Syria. It also includes abuses against older people in the 2020 armed conflict in the ethnic-Armenian-majority enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh.

Covid-19 and the media: A pandemic of paradoxes

April 1, 2021

This report covers responses to the infringement of the right to freedom of information, misinformation on social media and the impact on public interest media caused by the Covid-19 pandemic with a human-rights based approach and gender-sensitive lens.As journalists on the frontline have supplied essential live-saving information to massively expanded audiences in need of reporting they could trust, advertising revenues have collapsed, leaving public interest media struggling to survive.The report features interviews with journalists from four IMS programme counties, Colombia, Ethiopia, Sri Lanka and Ukraine about the challenges created by the pandemic and case studies showcasing success stories from independent media outlets in Pakistan, the Philipines, Somalia and Zimbabwe.

Learning Through Play: Increasing impact, Reducing inequality

January 1, 2021

What is the potential of children's play to promote equality in outcomes and address learning gaps between children from more advantaged and less advantaged backgrounds? Drawing evidence from early childhood learning programmes across 18 countries, as well as from interviews with the authors of various contributing studies, this report aims to understand whether and how the evidence about play and learning relates to tackling the learning crisis, especially in terms of inequality in learning outcomes around the globe.This report published by the LEGO Foundation shows that play not only helps children learn, it also supports inclusion, and reduces inequality, therefore demonstrating that policymakers and international organisations need to pay close attention to play. Building on their findings, the authors suggest four areas for future investment, innovation and investigation.

Ethiopia’s Clash with Tigray: Getting to a Ceasefire and National Dialogue

November 5, 2020

With Ethiopian federal troops and Tigray's paramilitary forces engaged in armed conflict, local, regional and international actors should press for a ceasefire and chart a path to comprehensive dialogue to avert civil war in Africa's second most populous country.

Partnering to Realize the Girl Effect: Learnings from a Decade of Delivering for Girls

June 15, 2019

This report summarizes learnings from more than a decade of work, including more than $132 million in investments in more than 80 countries via a network of 140 organizations, occurring between 2004 and 2017. It is the culmination of a review of program reports and evaluations from more than 280 grants and initiatives, as well as interviews with current and former NoVo Foundation and Nike Foundation staff and partners.Our goal was to share lessons and insights that might be useful for others. This document is not a field guide for implementing specific programs, but rather a collection of learnings to inform program design.

Curriculum Reform, Assessment and National Qualifications Frameworks

February 1, 2019

This background paper engages with issues of secondary education reform in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since 2007 and uses the MasterCard framework of questions as a template for gathering evidence. The framework seeks answers in three broad areas of reform: curriculum, assessment/examination systems and national qualifications frameworks (NQFs). It specifically invited responses to the following questions: Curriculum- What kinds of curriculum reform have occurred in SSA since 2007?- How successful has the practical implementation of new curricula been?- Given the challenges, how can resource-constrained ministries implement curriculum reform?- To what extent has a/the new curriculum promoted 21st century skills (like creativity, critical thinking, cognitive flexibility and emotional intelligence), as well as employability and entrepreneurial skills? Assessment- How successful has assessment reform been? National Qualifications Framework - What is the status of implementation of NQFs across SSA?- Have the approaches to NQF implementation promoted learning and the acquisition of skills necessary for employment?To ensure greater inclusivity, and to solicit a wide range of perspectives, we have chosen to review as broad a spectrum of publications as possible. This has meant that we have included research papers that, more often than not, would have been excluded from similar types of reviews. These include graduate students' masters and doctoral theses; and research papers published in journals that are not widely recognised. The net effect of widening the pool of sources is that many more researchers from, and working in, institutions on the continent have been referenced or included in the bibliography. The evidence gathering processes involved six linked activities: x Setting the search parameters and undertaking an electronic search. vi x Reviewing the document titles and abstracts; and sifting and excluding nonrelevant documents. x Once the primary and secondary sources have been identified, using high frequency citations to identify researchers in the field for follow up processes. x Reviewing the wider scholarship of identified scholars to gather additional 'grey' literature. x Identifying case studies, based on the analysis of these preliminary sources. x Site visits and case study write-ups Two system case studies were selected for close analysis: South Africa and Ethiopia. South Africa was selected because of its experience of three separate waves of curriculum reform in the past two decades, the extensive documentation of these curriculum reforms and as one of the first systems in the world to have introduced a national qualifications framework. Ethiopia was selected as it represents a rapidly developing country in which secondary education is likely to play a key role. It was also selected because of its recent review of its secondary education curriculum and examination system.

Preparing Youth for the Transition to Work

February 1, 2019

This situational analysis is about school to work transitions (SWT) in the sub-Saharan African context. We focus in particular on the transition from secondary education to work, including both general secondary education and secondary-level technical and vocational education and training (TVET). Secondary education is often framed as a conduit into tertiary education, but for many youths it is not. It is the last step in their educational trajectory, before or during which they may make the transition to work. This study is about how to best prepare youth enrolled in secondary school to transition to work and navigate a pathway to an employment trajectory that eventually leads to improved lives. We aim to provide a framework to structure thinking around school to work transitions, outline the context, identify the scope and the gaps in the knowledge base, and provide recommendations to guide future programming and policy on school to work transitions

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Post-Emergency Contexts: A study on establishing sustainable service delivery models

December 4, 2018

Large-scale and complex emergencies often occur in countries where government institutions have weak coping capacity. They may struggle to deliver essential services routinely, even in non-emergency situations. This has serious implications for the way in which emergency water, sanitation and hygiene services are managed long-term and in the transition from emergency to post-emergency situations.UNHCR and Oxfam commissioned a study to understand more about how emergency WASH services are delivered, and to identify how the provision of infrastructure can lead to sustainable service delivery and a more professional management mechanism. As many humanitarian crises are protracted in nature, emergency WASH services need to be sustained once humanitarian agencies depart. This report aims to review and identify alternative service delivery options, and to provide some pragmatic guidance that can be incorporated into emergency response programmes and tested, evaluated and built on in the future.

The Scoop on Poop: How Open Defecation Free Data Led to Activity Program Pivots in Ethiopia's Lowlands

September 12, 2018

Sanitation behavior change is a notoriously complex intervention. In the harsh, remote environment of the Ethiopian lowlands, this is particularly so. Community-Led Total Sanitation and Hygiene (CLTSH) interventions, while successful in Ethiopia's densely populated highland areas, have never been implemented at scale in the lowlands. We learned that in these communities, dominated by (semi-) pastoralist groups, that the operating conditions for effective, sustained behavior change are highly variable. A Collaborating, Learning and Adapting (CLA) approach helped the program team define, pivot and re-design activities that addressed project effectiveness.Our experience is drawn from the USAID/Ethiopia-funded Lowland Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Activity that works to accelerate access to improved WASH in three rural lowland regions: Afar, Somali, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP). Mid-activity data review highlighted several disappointing results that prompted a program team rethink. With both the implementing team and USAID/Ethiopia interested in critical feedback to adapt their approaches, USAID Lowland WASH Activity adopted the CLA framework to address these challenges. Utilizing pause and reflect, strategic collaboration, adaptive management and M&E for learning, an intentional CLA process allowed for a virtuous cycle of learning to occur.While still too early to determine the full effect of the CLA approach on development outcomes, encouraging results have emerged. A stronger set of 'performance envelope' criteria allowed for better targeting and sustainable CLTSH interventions; adaptation of the communication strategy led to effective storytelling practices in local languages, and project insights led to the refinement of Open Defecation Free (ODF) certification in Somali to a more manageable village- instead of Kebele-level definition.

Atelier régional sur l’assainissement rural en Afrique australe et orientale

June 14, 2018

La CLTS Knowledge Hub, basée à l'Institute of Development Studies, a organisé un atelier régional à Arusha en Tanzanie, du 16 au 20 avril 2018 avec l'aide de la SNV Tanzanie. L'événement a réuni les personnes impliquées dans la programmation de l'EAH en milieu rural dans huit pays de la région (Burundi, Érythrée, Éthiopie, Kenya, Malawi, Ouganda, Tanzanie et Zambie) aux côtés d'experts travaillant aux niveaux régional et mondial. Durant les cinq jours de l'atelier, les participants ont échangé leurs expériences, les innovations, les problèmes rencontrés et les acquis et ils ont recensé les manques de connaissances dans le but d'améliorer les capacités et l'apprentissage futur et d'arriver à un consensus sur la façon d'aller de l'avant. Par ailleurs, la SNV Tanzanie a facilité une visite d'étude dans ses zones du projet Assainissement durable et Hygiène pour Tous (SSH4A) dans les districts de Babati et Karatu.Cette note d'apprentissage présente les problèmes les plus communs et les obstacles à la réalisation de l'Objectif de développement durable (ODD) 6.2 que les participants à l'atelier ont identifiés dans toute la région. Elle résume les discussions qui se sont tenues toute la semaine, met en avant les pratiques prometteuses et considère des actions prioritaires pour aller de l'avant.

East and Southern Africa Regional Rural Sanitation Workshop

May 24, 2018

The CLTS Knowledge Hub, based at the Institute of Development Studies, convened a regional workshop in Arusha, Tanzania, 16-20 April 2018 with support from SNV Tanzania. The event brought together those engaged in rural WASH programming from eight countries across the region (Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia) alongside experts working at regional and global levels. Over the course of five days participants shared experiences, innovations, challenges and learning, and mapped gaps in knowledge with the aim of improving capacity and future learning, and building consensus on the way forward. SNV Tanzania also facilitated a field visit to its Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All (SSH4A) project areas in Babati and Karatu districts.This learning brief presents the common challenges and barriers to achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.2 that the workshop participants identified across the region. It summarises discussions held across the week, highlights promising practices and considers priority actions moving forward.

Women's Economic Empowerment and Care (WE-Care) - Oxfam: Phase II Interim Report

February 14, 2018

This report examines the second phase of Oxfam's Women's Economic Empowerment and Care (We-Care) programme. The first phase focused on building evidence for influencing policy change on women's heavy and unequal unpaid care work in six countries. The second phase of the programme seeks to continue deepening the evidence base; strengthen influencing capacity on unpaid care; develop and test new strategies, resources and approaches; and capture and share learning with the development sector on effective influencing.The report also includes progress reports from three countries in which the programme is active: Uganda, Zimbabwe and Ethiopia.