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Fish Trader's Gender and Niches in a Declining Coral Reef Fishery: Implications for Sustainability

July 28, 2017

The state of natural resources is greatly influenced by market access. Consequently, resource trader's incentives, decisions, and willingness to comply with management can influence efforts to achieve sustainability. Trader's impacts will depend on their economic niches, which are influenced by cultural norms, skill, social relationships, profitability, and the spatial scale of markets. Consequently, we examined the potential of traders to influence fisheries' sustainability by evaluating their jobs, gender roles, religion, socioeconomic status, association and perceptions of management systems, and future plans. We studied 142 traders in 19 Kenyan coral reef fisheries landing sites distributed among four gear management systems.

Global Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for Local Management

August 10, 2011

Background: The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. Methodology/Principal Findings: This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums), stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication), and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude) to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean) or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia). The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean) where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. Conclusions/Significance: Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of coral stressors until long-term carbon reductions are achieved through global negotiations.