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Arrangements and Cost of Providing Support to Rural Water Service Providers

November 1, 2011

This paper is about the costs of providing direct and indirect support to rural water service provision. It provides an overview of the features such support entails, how these features can be organized, what they cost and how they can be financed. It also provides recommendations to countries for strengthening support. The paper is based on a desk review of existing literature from seven countries and an analysis of primary cost data collected by the WASHCost project in Andhra Pradesh (India), Mozambique and Ghana in 2010 and 2011. Support to service providers in the form of monitoring, technical assistance and (re)training of service providers is called direct support whereas indirect support refers to aspects such as macro-level planning and policy making. Direct support can be provided in different forms: by specialized agencies, by local government or even by an association of service providers. However, the nature, scope and frequency of such support are often not sufficiently defined. There is, therefore, still little quantitative evidence that supports the premise that direct support has a positive impact on the quality and sustainability of services.

Adaptation of WASH Services Delivery to Climate Change and Other Sources of Risk and Uncertainty

July 1, 2011

This report urges WASH sector practitioners to take more seriously the threat of climate change and the consequences it could have on their work. By considering climate change within a risk and uncertainty framework, the field can use the multitude of approaches laid out here to adequately protect itself against a range of direct and indirect impacts. Eleven methods and tools for this specific type of risk management are described, including practical advice on how to implement them successfully.