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Tracing Swedish Development Flows: A study of the traceability of Swedish aid to Tanzania

July 26, 2018

This report uses 2013–2015 International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) data to trace Swedish aid to Tanzania to its end use. It finds that general budget support (GBS) accounted for much of Swedish aid in 2013 and 2015, but could not determine final expenditures using IATI data. In the absence of GBS, the authors could only confirm that in 2014, 28 percent of Swedish aid arrived in Tanzania, via the government and Tanzania-based organizations. A key constraint to traceability is that Sweden does not require aid implementers to report to IATI. The report recommends that Sweden encourage such reporting.

Follow the Money: Using International Aid Transparency Initiative data to trace development aid flows to their end use

February 14, 2018

This note gives guidance on using International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) data to trace aid flows from donor treasuries to their final end use. Traceability in IATI works by following the money as it flows from organization to organization through the development implementation chain. Provided that all organizations publish their information, it is possible to assess how much of the total funding at the beginning of the implementation chain is spent on goods and services, and where the money is spent. See also Tracing US Development Flows.

Tracing US Development Flows: A study of the traceability of US aid to Ghana

January 4, 2018

More than 600 development organizations publish to the International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) Standard. IATI provides up-to-date and reliable aid data to improve accountability, coordination and effectiveness. Aid flow traceability throughout the implementation chain is a key part of this.This research report shows that, using 2013-2015 IATI data, it is only possible to verify that 7% of US aid to Ghana ($28m) arrived in the country. It concludes that this traceability gap stems from limited IATI reporting by the international NGOs and firms that implemented most aid activities. To enhance traceability, the US government should require its implementers to publish to IATI.

Righting the Wrong: Strengthening local humanitarian leadership to save lives and strengthen communities

January 27, 2016

Tens of millions of people receive vital humanitarian aid every year, but millions more suffer without adequate help and protection, and their number is relentlessly rising.Far too often their suffering is because their governments cannot, or intentionally will not, ensure their citizens' access to aid and protection.This paper looks at how we can improve the humanitarian system and calls for a shift of power and resources from international actors to local actors.

Turning the Humanitarian System on its Head: Saving lives and livelihoods by strengthening local capacity and shifting leadership to local actors

July 7, 2015

The global humanitarian system is overstretched; inadequately investing in risk reduction and prevention, and providing assistance that is often insufficient, inappropriate and late. Humanitarian action led by governments in crisis-affected countries, assisted and held accountable by civil society, is usually faster and more appropriate, saving more lives and alleviating the suffering of many more men, women and children. Yet, during 2007-2013, less than 2 percent of annual humanitarian assistance went directly to local actors.In this research report, Oxfam puts the humanitarian system under the lens and finds that it must change to remain effective; with locally led humanitarian action whenever possible; adequate funding to state and non-state actors in affected countries; and stronger partnerships between international and local actors, focusing on strengthening local capacity.

We No Longer Share the Land: Agricultural change, land, and violence in Darfur

April 15, 2014

Most analyses of violence in Darfur ignore the local dimension of the crisis, focusing instead on the region's economic and political marginalization and climatic variability. However, agricultural change and other changes relating to the land-rights and land-use systems have led to competition and exclusion, and have played a major role in the collective violence that has raged throughout the region. Understanding these questions is essential for the successful resolution of political and policy debates in Darfur.

Climate Change Resilience: The case of Haiti

March 24, 2014

Haiti has long faced severe natural and human-created hazards due to its location in the Caribbean hurricane zone and to widespread deforestation. Hazards including storms, floods, and droughts have highly destructive impacts on buildings, land, water, livestock, and people in Haiti. The poorest Haitians, including low-income women, children, and elderly people, are especially vulnerable.The prospects for building Haiti's resilience to climate change are closely tied to post-earthquake reconstruction. As Haiti prepares for more disasters and rebuilds significant parts of its infrastructure, there is a real opportunity to integrate climate resilience into these efforts.This report analyses Haiti's adaptive capacity, adaptation options, and finance and governance issues. It makes recommendations on resilience building and identifies climate-change adaptation needs and opportunities.

Colombia: Contested spaces briefing paper

June 21, 2013

Colombia has one of the longest-running armed conflicts in the world. This briefing paper draws on Oxfam's research in Colombia in late 2011 into the impacts of Colombia's stabilization programme, the National Consolidation Plan (NCP). Interviewees clearly indicated that the NCP and other stabilization efforts had failed to make communities more secure, often leaving them less safe. Severe limitations were also found in the attempts to promote conflict-sensitive development. The United States is one of the leading donors to the NCP, along with Spain and the Netherlands.

Haiti - The Slow Road to Reconstruction: Two years after the earthquake

January 6, 2012

After two years Haitians continue to grapple with the effects of the devastating earthquake that killed more than 200,000 people and rendered more than one million homeless. The future of Haiti hangs in the balance, with the road to reconstruction proving to be a slow and arduous one. While billions of dollars of aid have been pledged, only half of the funds have been disbursed.This briefing note reports on the status of the reconstruction effort, and the continued challenges in shelter, education, and health facing the island nation. Haiti has for decades been plagued by institutional weaknesses, political instability, and economic insecurity; the earthquake has exacerbated these.

Planting Now: Agricultural challenges and opportunities for Haiti's reconstruction

October 5, 2010

Even before the devastating January 2010 earthquake, Haiti was one of the poorest and most food-insecure countries on earth. A majority of Haitians live in rural areas and depend on agricultural livelihoods, but neither the government nor the international community has paid sufficient attention to agriculture, leaving the countryside increasingly marginalized. Too often, decision-making forums have excluded the voices of poor rural Haitians. Trade liberalization has exposed Haitian farmers to competition from subsidized US rice exports and made consumers vulnerable to volatile global food prices.The immediate humanitarian response to the earthquake had a degree of bias towards external food aid, although some donors emphasized local procurement from Haitian farmers. Massive distribution of seeds, tools, and fertilisers in the earthquake zone and to those hosting displaced people bolstered prospects for 2010 harvests, although donors did not provide enough resources to assist all targeted households.Given the importance of agriculture in the lives of most Haitians, it must have a central place in post-earthquake reconstruction. Policies and programmes need to emphasize improving small-scale farmers' access to resources and services, so as to boost their incomes and productivity, particularly with regard to staple food crops. Urgent attention is also needed to reversing severe natural resource degradation. Policies and programmes must take the gender division of labour in agriculture into account. Key recommendationsThe Haitian government should: * Prioritize mobilization of the needed resources to implement its National Agricultural Investment Plan. * Carry out administrative and fiscal decentralization, with representative government institutions at all levels. * Support efforts of farmers, rural poor people, and rural women to develop robust, representative organizations. * Make health care and education available in rural areas and facilitate creation of off-farm employment opportunities, making rural areas attractive places to live and work.