September 15, 2022
Introduction: An objective of the Information Revolution Roadmap of Ethiopia's Health Sector Transformation Plan was to improve health management information system (HMIS) data quality and data use at the point of health service delivery. We aimed to assess drivers of and barriers to improving HMIS data quality and use, focusing on key Information Revolution strategies including Connected Woreda, capacity building, performance monitoring teams, and motivational incentives.Methods: We conducted an interpretative qualitative study across all 11 health centers in 3 subcities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Yeka, Akaki-Kaliti, and Ledeta. A total of 40 key informant interviews and 6 focus group discussions with a total of 43 discussants were conducted. We coded information gathered line-by-line and grouped responses under thematic codes as they emerged. Findings were triangulated and validated.Results: Our findings indicate that the main drivers of data quality and use at the point of service delivery were the use of the Connected Woreda strategy and its tools, capacity-building activities including mentorship, performance monitoring-team activities that led to active leadership engagement, and motivational incentives for data producers and users. Barriers to optimal data-use practices were the use of duplicative data collection tools at health facilities, under-developed health information system infrastructure, inadequate health information technician staffing and capacity limitations at the health facility level, insufficient leadership commitment, and unfavorable health worker attitudes toward data.Discussion: Improvements in quality and use of HMIS data at health facilities are expected to result in delivering better-quality health services to the community as data enable health workers to identify gaps in health care, fix them, and monitor improvements. Future investments should focus on strengthening the promising data-use practices, resolving bottlenecks caused by duplicative data collection tools, enhancing individual and institutional capacity, addressing suboptimal health worker attitudes toward data, and overcoming infrastructure and connectivity challenges.